Saturday, August 31, 2019
Introduction There are nine provisions included in the ANA code of ethics. The provisions can be broken Into three categories. The first category Is the nurse's ethical responsibilities to her patient which is provisions one through three. Second is the nurse's obligation to herself, provisions four through six. The third ethical requirement for nurses Is related to their relationship to the nursing profession, community, nation, and world overall. This focus is summarized in provisions seven through nine [ (AmericanNurses Association, 2013) J. Provisions 1-3 The first three provisions relate to the nurse's responsibility to treat everyone with dignity and respect regardless of that Individual's background, ethnicity, or the nature or severity of their illness, as well as making the patient the primary concern and advocating for them. There Is absolutely no room for discrimination in the nursing profession. Ã¢â¬Å"One of the simplest principles of distributive Justice is that of str ict or radical equality.The principle says that every person should have the same bevel of material goods and servicesÃ¢â¬ [ (Mason, Alleviate, & Chaffed, 2012, p. 83) l. The Bible also supports the principle of treating others with dignity and respect as stated in 1 Pet 2:AAA: Ã¢â¬Å"Show proper respect to everyone.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The company complained that Encik PokokÃ¢â¬â¢s application for leave was only received by Encik Bunga on the 26th November 1996. The leave application was not approved because it was not following the company procedure and secondly, reasonable excuse was not given. Encik Pokok was dismissed without internal inquiry done. Encik Pokok claimed that he had submitted his leave application on the 23rd November 1996. His application was pass to his friend to be given to his supervisor, Encik Daun. He assumed that his leave application was authorized. Encik Pokok said that he went to the Pejabat Kadi on the 23rd November 1996 to settle his sister in lawÃ¢â¬â¢s case and the next two days, to celebrate their engagement. For the 26th November 1996, he claimed he went to the labour office in Temerloh with his friend. Due to fatigue, he did not go to work. He made a verbal leave application to the company through one of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s officers who was available at that time. Encik Pokok claimed that he was unlawfully terminated. He complained that internal inquiry had to be done prior to his termination because it violates Section 14 of the Employment Act 1955 and Item 35 of the joint agreement. Power to make awards 35. Ã¢â¬â(1) A Court shall have power in relation to a trade dispute of which it has cognizance to make an award (including an interim award) relating to all or any of the industrial matters in dispute. (1A) A Court shall not consider a dispute relating to the dismissal of an employee or make an award relating to the reinstatement of an employee except in circumstances arising out of a contravention of section 82. 2) Notwithstanding subsection (1A), where an employee considers that he has been dismissed without just cause or excuse by his employer, in circumstances other than those arising out of a contravention of section 82, he may, within one month of such dismissal, make, through his trade union, representations in writing to the Minister to be reinstated in his former employment (3) The M inister may, before making decision on any such representations, by writing under his hand request the Commissioner to inquire into the dismissal and report whether in his opinion the dismissal is without just cause or excuse instated in his former employment. (4) The Minister, if he decides to deal with the representations himself, shall before making a decision thereon give an opportunity to the employer to make representations in writing as to the reasons why he considered the dismissal of the employee to be justified. 5) If, after considering the representations of the trade union and of the employer (if any) and any report made by the Commissioner under subsection (3), the Minister is satisfied that the employee has been dismissed without just cause or excuse he may, notwithstanding any rule of law or agreement to the contrary Ã¢â¬â (a) direct the employer to reinstate the employee in his former employment and to pay the employee an amount that is equivalent to the wages that the employee would have earned had he not been dismissed by the employer; or (b) direct the employer to pay such amount of wages as compensation as may be determined by the Minister. 5A) The employer shall comply with the direction of the Minister under subsec tion (5). (6) The decision of the Minister on any representations made under this section shall be final and conclusive and shall not be challenged in any court or in a Court established under this Act. 7) Any direction by the Minister under subsection (5) shall operate as a bar to any action for damages by the employee in any court in respect of the wrongful dismissal (8) An employer who fails to comply with the direction of the Minister under subsection (5) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction by a District Court to a fine not exceeding $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 12 months or to both. 9) Where an amount to be paid under subsection (5) is not paid in accordance with the direction of the Minister and the employer has been convicted of an offence under subsection (8), the amount, or so much thereof as remains unpaid, shall be recoverable by a District Court as if it were a fine and the amount so recovered shall be paid to the employe e entitled under the direction. Answer: As the defending lawyer, the Company did not make a correct decision in terminating Encik Pokok. The reason is because Encik Pokok has attempted to inform the Company by submitting the leave application form to Encik Daud through his friend on 23rd Nov 1996. Encik Pokok also made a verbal application for leave on the 26th November 1996 through a company official on duty at that time. This would mean that technically he was not absent for more than two consecutive days. Therefore ; According to Employment Act 1955, section 15(2), An employee shall be deemed to have broken his contract of service with the employer if he has been continuously absent from work for more than two consecutive working days without prior leave from his employer, unless he has a reasonable excuse for such absence and has informed or attempted to inform his employer of such excuse prior to or at the earliest opportunity during such absence. The Company also failed to conduct a domestic inquiry to give Encik Pokok a chance to defend himself and offer reasonable excuse why he failed to turn up for work. Therefore Section 14(1) of the Employment Act applies. According to Employment Act 1955 section 14(1), An employer may, on the grounds of misconduct inconsistent with the fulfillment of the express or implied condition of his service, after a due inquiry Ã¢â¬â (a) Dismiss without notice the employee; Habitual absenteeism (of less than two days at a time but on a frequent basis) would be defined as unauthorized absence from work on a certain number of days per month over a 6 month period. Initially warnings would be given, but if the absence persists, the employee may face dismissal. The failure to be punctual would be treated the same way as habitual absenteeism. In this case, the company failed to show whether Encik Pokok is a habitual absentee by not producing historical records of his attendance. However reported cases show that a breach of contract and termination are dealt as separate issues. As such a breach of contract may not lead to an automatic termination of employment. The consequence of such a breach would depend on the conditions of employment. Conclusion Encik Pokok was a victim of wrongful dismissal and the company must reinstate him immediately. The company has the right to issue written warning for the 24th and 25th November 1996 for unauthorized leave. Question 3 (b) You are defending lawyer for the Company. Has the Company made a correct decision in terminating Mr. Good . Discuss? Case facts: Mr. Good was charged with sleeping while on duty on 12th June 1997 at 7. 30pm in the music room at Tan Sri William ChengÃ¢â¬â¢s house in Petaling Jaya. Mr. Good was instructed Vide a letter on 17th June 1997 to attend an inquiry on 20th June 1997 to hear the charge. Mr. Good says that he had been dismissed without due inquire. He denied that he had committed the offence alleged of and argued that the company had merely acted on suspicion. Answer: Company did not make a correct decision. This is due to the fact that Mr. Good was not caught sleeping red handed and Mr. Bad and Miss SexyÃ¢â¬â¢s allegations were only implied. There were actually no eye witnesses. The court may conclude as it is only allegation as there is no evidence of Mr. Good committing the misconduct, as such the Company even failed to: 1) The Company did not conduct a domestic inquiry. The company should call for domestic inquire as it is an internal inquiry into some alleged misconduct by an employee. The main objectives of the domestic inquiry are to establish whether the alleged misconduct is proven or not and if the misconduct is proven, to recommend a punishment that is appropriate to the offence committed. The complainant is normally the management of the company but sometimes, can also be the victim of the alleged misconduct. At the domestic inquiry, the employer will present its case and the employee is given an equal opportunity to defend himself against the charges of misconduct. Under Employment Act 1955 Section14 (1) where an employer may on the grounds of misconduct inconsistent with the fulfillment of the express of implied conditions of his service, after due inquiry Ã¢â¬â 2) Absence of show cause letter or letter of disciplinary, As to Mr. Bad and Ms. SexyÃ¢â¬â¢s statement on Mr. Good was caught committing the same offence 3 years ago, there were no records as the company did not issue any show cause letter or letter of disciplinary action. Conclusion The Company did not follow the proper dismissal procedures in accordance to Employment Act 1955, which relates to misconduct.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Project Proposal Template Project Proposal Template Company Name Company Name Write Company Address Here City, State, Zip Code Phone, Fax Email: www. proposaltemplatestips. com Website: www. abc. com Write Company Address Here City, State, Zip Code Phone, Fax Email: www. proposaltemplatestips. com Website: www. abc. com Project Proposal Project Proposal 2011/12 2011/12 Project Name Project Name Business Area Program Name Business Area Program Name Project Sponsor:| | Author (Business):| | Author (MIS):| | Project Sponsor:| | Author (Business):| |Author (MIS):| | DD/MM/YYYY DD/MM/YYYY a). Sample text Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 1 b). 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Table of Contents Table of Contents Proje ct Details Project Details Summary Summary Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits.Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits.Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situat ion, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits.Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Provide a brief executive summary of your project proposal here in this section including background, current situation, objectives, time scales and expected benefits. Business Objectives Business ObjectivesPlease identify main objectives of your project in this section by giving a concrete statement describing your project and what you want to achieve with this project. You have to show here that your project is SMART that is Specific, M easureable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound. Please identify main objectives of your project in this section by giving a concrete statement describing your project and what you want to achieve with this project. You have to show here that your project is SMART that is Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound. Objective No| Objective Description| | | | | | | | |Please identify main objectives of your project in this section by giving a concrete statement describing your project and what you want to achieve with this project. You have to show here that your project is SMART that is Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound. Please identify main objectives of your project in this section by giving a concrete statement describing your project and what you want to achieve with this project. You have to show here that your project is SMART that is Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic and Time bound. Objective No| Objective Description| | | | | | | | |Deliverables and Limits Deliverables and Limits The deliverables are the changes that the project has to make in order to achieve the business objectives. Typically these will be system implementation or change to achieve the business process changes described in objectives. In many projects mis-understandings often arise because there are limits to the scope of the project that have not been clearly stated e. g. the system will only be available to a certain group of users, the deliverable is only intended to capture a proportion of the transactions, the system will only be delivered on University supported browsers.Typical deliverables for IT projects are listed below. * New IT Service * New MyEd channel * New Software system * Suite of Reports * Implementation service * Infrastructure Upgrade * Business Process Change The deliverables are the changes that the project has to make in order to achieve the business objectives. Typically these will be system implementation or change to achieve the business process changes described in objectives. In many projects mis-understandings often arise because there
The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce - Essay Example Managers are also able to establish what customers need, understand the business environment and make informed decisions to boost business performance. At the technological, organizational, operations and management levels, web analytics has tremendous impacts. Technology has made web analytics possible and effective. With the help of modern technologies, organizations have achieved great goals with web analytics. The paper discusses web analytics and its impacts on the organization on various fronts. The Impact of Web Analytics on E-Commerce from Each of the Following Perspectives: Management, Technology, and Organizational Web Analytics Web analytics is a general term that entails the study of the effects of Websites on the users (Hasan and Polya 2009, p814). Harinath et al. (2011, p118) defines web analytics as the web data analysis. In other words, the business intelligence permits analyst to have an insight of web-based businesses such as customer support and e-commerce. Web ana lytics permits an individual to recognize consumer behaviour and identify general trends on sales so that the business can personalize its services for the consumers and increase their satisfaction levels. With web analytics, the business can understand how well its online, content, and products processes are functioning (Harinath et al. 2011, p118). The process of getting web data and creating a data warehouse entails collection of data, which is, getting data from commercial enterprises, third-party sources, campaign advertising, and web logs. It also involves the transformation of data, that is, making the existing log data useful and relating it to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign advertising, third party, and commercial data sources. It also entails reporting of data, which is, publishing and storing the data in a meaningful way such that the directors and analysts can comprehend what they are reading (Harinath et al. 2011, p119). The main aim of web analytics is to transform data collected from various sources to get a meaningful intelligence concerning the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website. It entails the process of storing, analyzing, filtering, and collecting commerce, click-stream, and third-party data. The click-stream BI situations range from designing the web site better, understanding the navigation patterns, and comprehending what the users search to personalize the recommendations (Harinath et al. 2011, p118). Currently, e-commerce companies or organizations make use of web analytics software to evaluate actual details. These details include the number of people visiting their site, the number of visitors who are unique, Ã¢â¬Å"how they came to the site, what keywords they searched with on the siteÃ¢â¬â¢s search engine, how long they stayed on a given page or on the entire site, what links they clicked on, and when they left the siteÃ¢â¬ (Hasan and Poyla 2009, p814). Web analytic software is also utilized in monitoring if the pages on the site are wor king appropriately. With such information, the administrators are capable of determining the popular site areas and areas within the site that are not getting traffic. The administrators then use the data collected to streamline the site in a manner, which creates the best experience (Hasan and Poyla 2009, p814). E-commerce is done through the email and the World Wide Web. Television, radio, print media, web banners, and emails are among the common means
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Marketing a consumer organization - Essay Example It began as an effort to help eleven Japanese-American children they had found wandering the streets of Japan as outcasts and orphans, victims of their bi-racial makeup, a cultural taboo. After successfully relocating these orphans, word spread and before they knew it they were instrumental in helping over one hundred such orphans find new homes and new lives. Between 1960 and 1964 they were directly involved in founding nine orphanages, a school as well as a hospital in both Japan and Vietnam. In 1974-75 the organization assisted thousands of orphans that were rescued during "Operation Baby Lift" and brought to the United States for adoption. In 1976 the organization changed its name to "Childrens Village USA." Then in 1978 the organization created a center called The Village of Childhelp West in Beaumont, California and officially became known as Childhelp (Childhelp 2007). The focus of the agency from that time is captured in its Mission Statement: "ChildhelpÃ ® exists to meet the physical, emotional, educational, and spiritual needs of abused, neglected and at-risk children. We focus our efforts on advocacy, prevention, treatment, and community outreach" (Childhelp 2007). They have several regional locations in Arizona, Atlanta, California, Michigan, North Carolina, San Diego, Tennessee, Virginia and the Washington DC Area. However their outreach and information and assistance programs transcend the traditional boundaries. Furthermore, their web site allows them to assist people in all parts of the world. Additionally, the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD) which began in 1982 has received over two million calls since its inception: These calls come from children at risk for abuse, distressed parents seeking crisis intervention and concerned individuals who suspect that child abuse may be occurring. The Hotline is also a valuable resource for those who are mandated by law to report suspected abuse, such as school personnel,
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Public and Private Partnership Barnhill school, Hillingdon - Essay Example The popularity of the PPPs has been likely to increase over the years as there are a greater number of such partnerships between the private and the public sector, where the public sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s limited budgets persist the adoption of such a partnership and the private sector envisages opportunities of making profits through such partnerships. However, this partnership demands a close scrutiny in order to have a complete analysis of the outcomes that are required. The possibilities of the partnership between the two sectors is illustrated with the (Figure 1)As the figure illustrates at one extreme the public sector can fully take charge and responsibility of all the aspects of the service delivery including the infrastructure, whereas the private sector can also take up these responsibilities. However, there is a variation relative to a number of responsibilities taken up by both the sectors. In the ideal situation the PPPs help in capitalizing the strengths of the parties from bot h the sectors, so as to make the partnership mutually beneficial.A new school needed to be established in the Borough of Hillingdon by the Hillingdon Borough Council in order to provide additional space within the borough for educating 1450 school children, between the ages of 11 and 18 years (Ryan, 2004). The school required facilities that included assembly hall, dining area, catering facility, library, IT suite, sports hall a stimulating indoor environment, hence a complete construction of the building on the existing site. For this to take place Private Finance Initiative (PFI) was used as the route of procurement in order to make use of the public money in a better and effective way. The government policies were taken into consideration for the project that also required it to be environmentally, economically and socially sustainable (Garwood, Logan, Mills, & Willoughby). The Stakeholders to the project The PFI project (Broadbent & Laughlin, 1998) has two fundamental requiremen ts that it must demonstrate the value for money and also there should be transfer of risk from the public sector to the private sector. As for the value of money, it can be
Monday, August 26, 2019
Writing - Assignment Example The variables used are time in years against the cars, either cars or light trucks. Further analysis is done on the effect of the car sales to fuel sales at the pump. A graph of fuel is drawn, showing the weekly retail price per gallon. The graph changes from week to week and is directly affected by the number as well as the type of the cars sold (The Wall Street Journal, Para 1). Figure 2.Source: Gold, WSJ research, Global oil glut send prices plunging, October 14, 2014. Gold, Russel. "Global Oil Glut Sends Prices Plunging." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 14 Oct. 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2014. . In the graph above, a graph is used to illustrate the changes of prices of oil in the different months. Numbers are used to represent the sales in million dollars against the months of the year, and that is from the beginning of June to the end of October (Gold para 1). The graph shows how the fall in the prices of oil affects the output. The low oil prices will serve as an incentive for producers, resulting in high production. Figure 3. Source: Source: Gold, WSJ research, Global oil glut send prices plunging, October 14, 2014. Gold, Russel. "Global Oil Glut Sends Prices Plunging." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 14 Oct. 2014. Web. 27 Nov. 2014. . The graph above shows illustrates the sale petroleum by different oil companies. The sale is represented in percentages starting with the one having the highest percentage to the one with the lowest. This allows easy interpretation of the graph, from the complexity of large numbers involved (Gold para 3). Figure 4: Source: Madigan, Kathleen. "A New Way to Track the Ecnomy." WALL STREET JOURNAL. Dow Jones & Company, 26 Nov. 2014. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Internal and External Factor Analyses of the Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc - Essay Example The first section will present a brief profile of the company. The next section will then tackle the opportunities and threats faced by the company which will lay the foundation for the external factor analysis. Lastly, the paper will look at the internal functioning of Vermont Teddy Bear Co, Inc., through its strengths and weaknesses. The paper will also present summaries of the internal and external factor analyses. Vermont Teddy Bear Co, Inc. began in the streets of Burlington, Vermont in 1981. Its founder, John Sortino began this business by "selling hand sewn teddy bears out of a pushcart." His venture marked the foundation of a business which is basically involved in the conceptualization, manufacture, and marketing of teddy bears. The company is known for its products which are manufactured by Americans using local inputs. Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc., however, has begun utilizing imported materials to lower the costs of production and boost profitability. The major business line of the company is the marketing of bears through a program called Bear-Grams which delivers the company's products to customers who can order online or through phone. Bear-Gram was originally advertised through radio stations and orders were taken for special occasions like birthdays, Valentine's Day, and others. The company has latter diversified in the retail of its products. Expansion also meant opening up retail outlets in lucrative areas in the United States. This expansion aimed to promote Vermont Teddy Bear as a national brand. Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc.'s performance peaked during 1994 but slipped off due to managerial problems and constraints (The Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc 1994). External Factor Analysis External factor analysis is lifted from the opportunities and threats faced by Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc. Opportunities include market developments, competitors' vulnerabilities, lifestyle or industry trends, technology development and innovation and a lot more which poses an opportunity which can enable the company to grab a larger portion in the market, maximize shareholders' value, or boost profitability. On the other hand, threats can be political events, drop in market demand, and other obstacles faced by a business entity. Table 1 is a summary of the external factor analysis conducted on Vermont Teddy Bears Co., Inc. Opportunities abound for Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc. The boom in the collectible market posts a bright prospect for the company this means a larger customer base which can be serviced by Vermont. The collectible industry is estimated to be a $9.2 billion industry with the plush collectibles segment cornering a $441 million share (Calta, 1995). In the past five years, there has been a growing preference for the upscale bear, the limited editions, and the artist-designed bears (Leccese, 1998). Companies in the teddy bear industry can take advantage of this trend by expanding their product lines in response to this growth. Vermont Teddy Bear Co., Inc. as one of the most prominent players in the teddy bear industry is in a very advantageous position to grab this opportunity. Manufacture of bears to suit the changing needs of customers can be pursued. Market diversification strategies can also be undertaken by the company both in the United Sta
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Mansoor Ahmad Saad - Essay Example 5.Is the sample appropriate? Is the sample large enough? Is the sample truly representative of the relevant population? What are the particular issues with this population? Are the tasks and materials appropriate? To answer the first question of the critique, the rationale for carrying out the research is discussed. As argued by Prezant and Marshak (2006), parents of children with disabilities need a broad range of support services from service providers and child care units so that they could facilitate positive outcomes for their children and these support services will have to be aimed in a manner that meets the needs of the parents of children with disabilities. The needs of the parents may be varied and they may not always agree with professionals on what actions or services are truly helpful. In order to understand the parents viewpoints on the type of support services required, this research paper by Prezant and Marshak (2006) have focused on the aims of examining provisions of health care services provided to disabled children from the parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives. The authors cite Kerr (1984) suggesting that the concept of help may differ from one person to another and that parents may have different opinions of help when compared with the professionals so it is necessary to understand parents view of what constitutes Ã¢â¬ËhelpÃ¢â¬â¢. The theoretical framework thus seems strong in this case as the authors provide their case and their argument in a convincing manner, drawing on a conceptual framework of help and service. Help could be understood not only on the basis of unmet needs but also the type of nature of help needed. Marshak and Present (2006) suggest that parental perspectives on the kind of services provided to their children are very important as parents decide on what kind of help should be available to their children and what is most suitable for their children. Considering this, the authors do provide a string rationale
Friday, August 23, 2019
Narrative Autobiography. Life Experiences - Essay Example One of my friends, Jim said, Ã¢â¬Å"Why not prove our swimming skills today. It is really hot yet a sunny day for all of us to enjoy?Ã¢â¬ We all agreed to what Jim proposed. So finally we decided to go to a water park and have some fun together. When we got in there was a good crowd and people were having fun. It was a huge park for people to hang out and have a lot of fun. Since it was a warm sunny day and, also luckily it was a public holiday, therefore, one could easily find families and bunches of friends grouped up together for little fun and adventure. I was specifically attracted by an artificial water fall which ended up in a pool. So I said to my friends that I would be the one going first to jump into that water pool from a good height. I wanted to prove my swimming skills on my friends. So, with a deep breath I turned around, smiled and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, since you guys are too young to jump down from such a good height therefore, I have decided that I will be the one ta king the lead and jumping off in the water, trust me, I am a born swimmer.Ã¢â¬ My friends were amazed and just so thrilled on the idea of jumping from such a great height and above that, what made them more excited was the idea that I proposed in front of them; me taking the lead! Somehow, deep down inside I was little nervous to jump down. But I convinced all my friends that it will be fun to jump from that height in the swimming pool. When we got up there I felt I would not be able to jump from that height and decided to back up. But the fact that I was the one who convinced them to come here on the first place everybody started making fun of me. One of my friends said, Ã¢â¬Å"You were dying to be the fish, desperately wanting to swim in the shallow water, go ahead.Ã¢â¬ I smiled back and said, Ã¢â¬Å"You will what a fine fish I can be, this is just a piece of cake for a good swimmer like me.Ã¢â¬ And that was not it other people standing there most of whom were kids and pe ople I had never even met in my whole life started making fun of me. So finally I had enough and thought that being such a good swimmer that I am what harm can it do if I jump. And if I donÃ¢â¬â¢t then of course my friends are going to mock me for the rest of my life. It was then when I decided to jump. So I jumped. When I fell in the pool I started swimming but after a while I realized that I was neither moving up or ahead instead I was drowning so I started screaming for help as loud as I can. Fortunately one of the swimmers heard my screams and pointed it out to the life guard who immediately came to my help and rescued me. And I thought that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t embarrassing enough so I decided to ask yet another stupid question. I asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Is that pool deepÃ¢â¬ the life guard looked at me angrily and said Ã¢â¬Å"if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to swim you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be around that pool and itÃ¢â¬â¢s for your own safety that we make these rules.Ã¢â¬ Then all my friend s gathered around me and after making sure that I was not hurt they started laughing at me, Ã¢â¬Å" you are cowardÃ¢â¬ , one of my friend laughed at me. But I realized that moment that sometimes it is better to be coward in order to learn the good things in life and to hold the true moments that you will remember all through your life. I smiled back at my friends and replied more humbly than ever before in my life, Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I am coward enough to be a fish in my other life!Ã¢â¬
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Andrew Marvells poem To His Coy Mistress Essay In this essay I will compare and contrast Andrew Marvells poem, To His Coy Mistress, with Elizabeth Barrett Brownings sonnet, How Do I Love Thee? Andrew Marvells poem is about an older man trying persuade a younger women to carpe diem (seize the day), in order to make love to her, by using compliments and flattery, Vaster than empires, and should go to praise.'(Stanza 1, line 12) Additionally, Elizabeth Barrett Brownings sonnet is about a female who is expressing her feelings towards a male. Judging by the poem, the woman is deeply in love with the man in a spiritual sense, I love thee to the depth and breadth and height, my soul can reach. (Line 2-3) To His Coy Mistress is a comparatively long poem of 46 lines, which is divided into three stanzas, representing different parts of the argument for which he is trying to persuade her to sleep with him. In the first stanza, the man flatters the women by using grandiose imagery and hyperbole. He says that her coyness would be of no consequence had we but world enough and time (Line 1) and then follows with more detail in the following stanzas. The older man also shows how interested he is by expressing the magnitude of his feelings, by explaining how he would, love you ten years before the flood (Line 8), even if his love were to remain unrequited, till the conversation of the Jews.'(Line 10) In addition he then describes how long he would be prepared to appreciate all of her physical attributes, two hundred to adore each breast, But thirty thousand to the rest.'(Line 15-16) On one hand, he is trying to prove to the young women how much he wants her; on the other hand she could perceive his words in the wrong way, maybe he just wants to sleep with her? You could argue that this is satirising the kings court, because even though he is flattering her, it is inappropriate to assume that he would be allowed to look at her for this long period of time. In the second stanza, he continues to us the grandiose imagery from the first stanza, but introduces a sense of urgency. When he says, but in the very first line, the audience realises that there is going to be a shift in focus. He now says that he hears times winged chariot hurrying near.'(Line 22) From this point, his imagery becomes increasingly desperate. He tries to shock the women into sleeping with him, by talking about her coyness, and if she perseveres in life that way, she runs the risk of only wormstrying that long preserved virginity.'(Line 27-28) He says that his attitude will turn to dust and into ashes all my lust.'(Line 30) This sentence makes the audience more aware of his actual intentions by saying the word lust rather than love, making us believe that he has betrayed his true motives, and slipped up in front of the woman, he is making out he loves. In the last stanza of To His Coy Mistress, it sees him almost demand that they make sport (love). The imagery on this stanza becomes more erotic, and may have more than one interpretation. Let us roll.up into one ball, and tear our pleasuresthrough the iron gates of life.'(Line 41 and 44) Rolling up into a ball could represent two people making love together or a cannon ball which will smash down, the iron gates of life. These gates could represent the womans chastity belt or societys conventions which would frown upon an extramarital affair. The last two lines are similarly ambiguous. They both tie in with lines from the second stanza. Thus, through we cannot make our sun, stand still, yet we will make him run (Line 45 46), suggests that they should make the most of their time they are spending together, and conceive a child (son). Elizabeth Barrett Brownings poem, How do I love thee presents quite a contrast to Andrew Marvells poem. Its imagery is humble, and very personal. It is an expression of deep love and devotion from one person to another. The purpose of the poem is to quantify the dimensions of her love and at the beginning of the poem, it is very clear to the audience that this woman is deeply in love with her partner By starting with the line, How do I love thee? Let me count the ways'(Line 1) she begins to compare her love to religion and emotions rather than physical attributes, I love thee freely, as men strive for right. (Line 7) The imagery she uses to supposedly quantify this love is suggestive of infinity, and a love which has no boundaries, even after the soul is free from the physical body, I shall but love thee after death. (Line 14) Constructive descriptions are always used in this poem, compared to Andrew Marvells, which also describes the negative issues. Besides Brownings poem having a very romantic meaning, you could question why the woman needs to prove her love for her partner, because she continually mentions and repeats, I love thee in most of her sentences. She could be indeed counting the ways she loves her partner, however maybe her partner needs reassuring of her love for him. One could argue that, Barrett Browning chose the sonnet form for this poem, for the purposes of contrast; to take something which is supposedly infinitive (her love) and place it in a finite and restricted form (sonnet). Alternatively, people could think different because there are such strict rules governing sonnet writing, (i.e. 10 syllables per line, 14 lines etc) and people might question why she chose such a rigid format, for something which she feels most strongly about. Overall, the two poems are opposites, but they are both concerned with the concept of time, human life and love. At the end of the poem, browning says, if god choose, I shall love thee better after death,'(Line 13-14) showing that even after she dies, her love for this man will continue to grow, loving him for eternity. To His Coy Mistress, and How Do I Love Thee have many correlations with each other. For example; Both poems are about love; but represent different kinds of love. Andrew Marvells poem is about lust and sexual gratification, while Elizabeth Barrett Brownings poem is about true love and loyalty. The sonnet is written from a womens point of view, where she expresses her true love for her husband. The other poem is written from a mature mans point of view, and represemts his lust for a younger women. This poem is an elaborate chat up line to present a logical argument in order to persuade her to make love to him. This can show how the significance of a poem can differ because of the century it has been written in. To his coy mistress, was written in the 1600s while How do I love thee was written in the 1800s. The cultural difference between these two periods, is the writing style, as in the 1600s people were interested in composing clever arguments, and were more interested in writing about sex, lust and passion. Whereas in the 1800s, the poems written had more true meaning, with a deeper, more romantic feeling. And into ashes all my lust, compared to, How do I love theeLet me count the ways. Many love poems are written in a very traditional format, with very strict rules. Elizabeth Barrett Browning took the challenge to write about something which is supposed to have no limits (love) into something which is restricted (sonnet). On the other hand Andrew Marvells poem is all based around carpe diem, in a non-traditional format, with no strict rules or guide-lines. This can affect the imagery used as one has no limitation to the amount of syllables, lines or stanzas, while the other has a restricted format leaving a certain amount of phrases which can be used. Clearly this means that there are different types of imagery used between the two poems since, How do I love thee uses abstract and emotional imagery, which tends to be highly personal and humble. In some cases you cannot quite put a finger on what she is describing. I love thee to the level of every day, most quite nearby sun and candlelight. (Line 5-6) To His Coy Mistress, tends to use ostentatious hyperbole and grandiose imagery. He uses big overdone, tacky images, by using phrases such as, times winged chariot, instant fires and iron gates of life. You can picture what the man is describing; but on the other hand, you can tell that he might be misleading the audience to make them believe that he is in love with this woman. Throughout the whole of my essay, I have come to the conclusion, that both poems have many comparisons, similarities and differences. They both describe a form of love between two people. In my opinion, the poem I prefer is, To his coy mistress, because it had more of an effect on me, because of the language used. The man comes across as very desperate, but on the other hand with very good charisma. The imagery used is effective, as I could relate and imagine what he is describing. As well as keeping the audience intrigued on what the women will do next, he leaves the ending on a cliff hanger, by not telling on the final decision the women makes! However, I do not dislike the poem, How do I love thee because it has appropriate language for the concept she is describing. I just think it is rather tedious describing only the optimistic qualities about a person, for the reason that everybody has faults and pessimistic attributes. Furthermore, I didnt find it unique or distinctive from other love poems, since the language and imagery was very similar.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Herbert Mullin Criminal Profile Essay Mullin Herbert Mullin was born in Salina California which happens to be the anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s death. He was the youngest between him and his sibling, Patricia. He was raised by both parents Jean and Bill Mullin. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any problems in school he was popular and physically attractive. He had a good childhood but through his life span he made a lot of wrong decisions that includes drug abuse which aggravated schizophrenia. In high school he had a lot of friends and was quite popular. He played football and had a steady relationship and was voted most likely to succeed. At the age of eighteen he attended Cabrillo College to study engineering. In the summer of 1967 he graduated with a two year degree in road engineering and enrolled at San Jose State College change his major to philosophy and took on the hippie lifestyle. At the age of twenty-one In June 1965 people began to think that his sanity was deteriorating due to the fact that he built a shrine in his bedroom to Dean, his friend that was killed in a car accident the summer after graduation. At the age of nineteen he first experienced LSD which lead him to experimenting more with marijuana and LSD. At the age of twenty one he was arrested for possession of marijuana. At the age of 21 at a family dinner he started showing signs of schizophrenia which was aggravated by drug abuse. At the age of twenty two Herbert Mullin began treatment as a resident of the community drug abuse prevention center in Santa Cruz. Later that year Herbert Mullin was committed to the psychiatric ward of San Luis Obispo County General Hospital because with is mental disorder he was a danger to others, himself and gravely disabled. A month later he was diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic. He was not one that cared to take his medication. In the summer of 1970 he was diagnosed as a schizo-affective schizophrenia. In 1970 he began blaming his parents for his illness and in result took them out of his will. Herbert killed people believing that if he started to kill people it will lessen the chances of another hurricane happening in his area. He did this by only killing random Caucasians from the age of 4 to 72. He bought his materials to the crime scene such as a gun, knife, and baseball bat. He was a psychotic visionary. Mullin had no developmental problems according to Erikson. He went through all the stages where he experience love and finding out what personality he wants to embrace. This is the point and time when he realizes that he is a bisexual. The motivation behind it seems to be the fact that he was born the day that Albert Einstein died and the anniversary of San Francisco Earthquake. Freud would have said that he is anticathexis because he gives off the sense that his ego is blocking the socially unacceptable needs of id. Mullin for example when he found out that his target moved he went after him and killed him as planned. Afterwards he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t resist the urge to go back and kill the messenger who could have been a witness in the killing incident that happened before her and her family. Bibliography * Watts, Vernetta. Californian Guilty in 10 Murder Cases. (1973, August 20). New York Times, P. 10. Mullin, Herbert. N. P. , n. d. Web. 09 May 2013. * Santa Cruz Serial Killer, Herbert Mullin, Denied Parole Central Coast News KION/KCBA. Santa Cruz Serial Killer, Herbert Mullin, Denied Parole Central Coast News KION/KCBA. 13 May 2013 * FreudianÃ Theory. About. com Psychology. N. P. , n. d. Web. 16 May 2013.
Airline and Airport Management: Motivation Theories Introduction This report will analyse the changing world of work and how it has changed a lot recently. The writer will also examine the trends and issues that have affected and may affect the aviation industry both present and in the future by using real world examples, theories to approach a valid conclusion. Motivation Theories Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper. A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended to include his observations of humans innate curiosity. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslows need-hierarchy theory, Herzbergs two- factor theory, Vrooms expectancy theory, Adams equity theory, and Skinners reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzbergs work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vrooms theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). Skinners theory simply states those employees behaviours that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviours that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviours that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behaviour that leads to negative outcomes. Organisational Culture When together all employees or the group of people work to achieve the organisational goal, the organisations are become operational and successful. Therefore, organisational change is possible only when employees of the organisation understand the need for change, buy-in the idea of change, are motivated towards the change, and express their interest (McGuire D. Hutchings K., 2006; Beer M. et al, 1990). Other researchers (e.g. Tichy, 1983) acknowledge the frustration that managers feel when their organisations do not respond to elaborately analyzed plans, where there is a lack of interaction between decision and action. Teamwork Teamworking also offers the employees the opportunity to meet their social needs, as identified by Maslow. (Surridge, M., Gillespie, A. p199) When working in teams there are many people that may have different views and opinions, also not forgetting personalities. Different views are not a problem as such but the expression of views can be a problem. Many people unintentionally may say or do things that may affect certain members by making them upset or even generally uncomfortable. Good communication does not indicate being able to stand on stage and just tell the public a message. Leadership is about having a set of values and believing in them, but it is also having foresight, knowledge and intuition, especially about people. Leaders can not expect others to believe in them if they do not believe in themselves. (Malpas M., 2006 cited by Porter K. et al, 2006) Leadership is about listening to people, supporting and encouraging them and involving them in the decision-making and problem-solving process. (Levine S. and Crom M., 1994, cited by Holbeche L., 1998) The Four Basic Leadership styles: Autocratic This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages by the bookÃâÃ ¨ everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isnt covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules. Laissez-faire The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-offÃâÃ ¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. Democratic The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. Communication Skills According to Stephen Covey, communication is the most important skill in life. This is no less true for managerial efforts to invest everyone from the total corporate environment toward change, in these demanding times, on behalf of their organisational life (Kotter, 1993, 1996, p. 3 and Mainelli, p. 1). Managements ability to generate trust in the sensibility of their vision- the power of which can only be unleashed when those involved in an enterprise or activity have a common understanding of its goals and direction- including employees and customers (Miller p. 219 and Kotter, 1996, p. 85). Waltslawick et al. conclude: 1. Meanings are not transferred- they are created in the minds of the perceivers, 2. Anything is a potential message, 3. The message perceived is the only one that counts, 4. Interpersonal messages have content and relational components, 5. Communication interaction can be either symmetrical or complementary, 6. Effective communication is hard work (Axley, 1996, pp. 53-63). More over (Daly et al., 2003) Internal communication is important in communicating change. Others focus on the constructional phases of change, where communication is vital to mutual understanding of the problems organisations have to face in order to meet the challenges, and need to change (Bennebroek Gravenhorst et al., 1999). Technology in the workplace Technology in the 21st century has advanced in many ways, people in many organisation use technology to work and communicate. In todays society people dont like to wait to get checked or served, this could include paying bills, topping up payment cards, shopping etc. The writers own workplace at the airport bmibaby have brought 10 new kiosk machines where passengers can check themselves in, this is more useful for passenger who are carrying hand luggage only and can check in at the machines and prints of their boarding pass and head straight to departures without even queuing up for the check in agent to check them in. Work Related Stress The writer works with airline bmibaby at the airport is most definitely stressful. As the writer own personal experience in everyday work a lot goes on at work, staff have to work together as a team making sure that everything is done on time and passengers are correctly checked in and board the flight on time without causing any disruptions. Alternatively, increased flexibility, responsibility, and learning opportunity in todays workplace may offer workers greater potential for self-direction, skill development, and career growth, leading to reduced stress and increased satisfaction and well being. Assessed online www.direct.gov.uk/work_related_stress PESTEL ANALYSIS The PESTEL framework categorises environmental influences into six main types: political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal. (Johnson and Scholes, 2002) BMIbaby PESTEL Analysis (P)olitical EU expansion Severe security measures and restrictions Climate protection charge French government support for national carriers New EU regulations (E)conomic Fuel price increases EU expansion Europe: cars and taxi hires (S)ocial Increasing travelling lifestyles Increasing business travels Market increase (T)echnological Technology expansion Low fuel consumptions Internet competition Internet online sales (E)nvironmental Noise level controls Green house carbon emissions (L)egal Allegations of misleading advertising Illegal subsidies from airport Conclusion For effective change management process, good communication between management and staff is imperative. In order to keep competitive advantages and to minimize fundamental effects of political and economical disturbance, the continuous change is required but this should be taken place with the involvement of each and every member of staff. In the process of decision making, if employees are taken into confidence and are convinced about the required change while taking them on board in decision making process, they would as a part of change management process adhere and admire the change. On the other hand, if they are left disconnected and arent motivated about this change process, subsequently their spirit and enthusiasm will go down. List of References Dale, G., (2007) Btec National Travel and Tourism Book 1. Oxford, Heinemann Directgov Workplace Stress http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Employment/HealthAndSafetyAtWork/DG_10026604 Fyall, A and Morgan, M (2009) Marketing in the Travel and Tourism. Oxford, Heinemann Page 88-90 Holbeche L. (1998), Motivating People in Lean Organizations, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann. Nicholson, I., (2001). Giving Up Maleness: Abraham Maslow, Masculinity, and the Boundaries of Psychology. History of Psychology, 2, 79-91 http://www.essortment.com/all/leadershipstyle_rrnq.htm Porter K., Smith P., Fagg R, (2006) Leadership and Management for HR Professional Leadership and Motivation at work Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Surridge. M., 2005. AS Business Studies. 2nd edn. London: Hodder Arnold. Trade Unions, 2010 Available at: https://www.tuc.org.uk/tuc/unions_main.cfm Turban, Efraim (2002), Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective, Prentice Hall, Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley. Wahba, M.A. Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance 15, 212-240
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
War Changes Henry in Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage There have been many great war stories; one is The Red Badge of Courage (1895) written by Stephen Crane. This book is circled around Henry Fleming, a young man who wants to join the Union Army during the Civil War. The Civil War has been a great subject for many books, as it was a great changing point in American History that lasted for 4 years. The story is written about Henry Fleming, who wanted to join the Union Army for a long time, but his mother didn't want him to. The story lasts over a period of a few days, probably two. He grew up on a farm, in a rural area, where he was secluded from large areas, like many other soldiers who fought in the Civil War. He is usually a good farmer boy, who follows what his mother says. With no mention of his father in the story, he is most likely dead or he ran away. This makes Stephen Crane's writing look like many families today, where there is only one parent to care for them. He eventually signs up with the Union Army, without his mother's full support. On his way there, he is greeted by many others who say how he is so great for joining the army. He gets to the Army camp eventually, and everyone there is waiting in anxiety for a battle. Here he meets other soldiers, such as the "Loud soldier," and the "Tall Soldier." They talk about battles, and soldiers who run from war, comparing them to children and anything but men. This makes him think if he, if the battle gets too violent, will run. Eventually the first battle comes, and the first rush with it. He defends his position, and doesn't run away. But the second wave of attacks came, and he ran away as fast as he could. He meets up with a group of injured soldiers, when he remembers that he ran from battle. This made him ashamed of himself, even more when he has to lie about being injured. This shows how the writer likes to use emotions on the character effect the reader, some people might be mad he ran a way, others might be disappointed in him for it. Overtime, Henry has many bad experiences since he ran from the battle. He was injured when a bullet grazes the backside of his head, and he also suffers from extreme dehydration, but is saved by a military camp he came to.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Increasing Student Participation in College Organizations Student participation in the annual Business Society Haunted House is essential for the future of this great event. Penn State DuBois has nearly one thousand students attending classes, but on average only fifteen students volunteer their time each night over the five-day period. This presents a problem for the Business Society. If student participation continues to decrease, this event will only be a memory. During our search for possible solutions to this problem, we used several research tactics. These tactics included distributing a student survey on campus, conducting personal interviews with the co-advisors and officers to the Business Society, and also with students who were involved in past years. We also researched journal articles and made contact with department heads to show the significance of student involvement in on campus activities. If students are aware of their ability to be involved in the Haunted House, they are more likely to participate. One way to accomplish this is by increasing advertising on campus. If students are offered incentives for participating, they will. Gift certificates from area businesses and free food will entice students to donate their time. Faculty involvement is crucial for the success of the Haunted House. Our findings indicated that students would volunteer if faculty offered class points to them for doing so. INTRODUCTION Background When Halloween rolls around it means ghosts, goblins, and scary creatures come to life. At Penn State DuBois it also means the annual Business SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Haunted House. The Haunted House is a smashing success every year, raising thousands of dollars for local charities. These charities include the Make-A-Wish Foundation, Habitat for Humanity, and the United Way (Muth). The Haunted House is a five-day event. There is a day of set-up that transforms the campus gymnasium into a spooky and frightening Halloween Haunted House. The completed Haunted House is then open to the public for three evenings. The fifth and final day is teardown, in which the gymnasium becomes recognizable again. Problem Description The same problem arises every year, lack of student participation. The lack of student volunteers is a continuous problem for all organizations, yet for the Haunted House itÃ¢â¬â¢s especially problematic. In a student survey conducted on the Penn State DuBois Campus, 88% of students said they were aware of the Haunted House; however, only 35% of students said they participated in it (Questionnaire).
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Irony in Chopin's Story of an Hour Ã Irony is a useful device for giving stories many unexpected twists and turns. In Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour," irony is used as an effective literary device. Situational irony is used to show the reader that what is expected to happen sometimes doesn't. Dramatic irony is used to clue the reader in on something that is happening that the characters in the story do not know about. Irony is used throughout Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" through the use of situational irony and the use of dramatic irony. Situational irony is used in "The Story of an Hour" through Mrs. Mallard's reaction to her husband's death and the description of the settings around her at this time. Upon hearing the news of her husband's death, Mrs. Mallard "wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment" (Chopin 213). It appeared to everyone that as a result of her husband's death, Mrs. Mallard was incredibly sad. She insisted upon being alone and retreated to her room. The sort of reaction she had seems like one typical to someone who had just lost a loved one. She experienced grief and shock. However, once she is alone in her room, the reader discovers another side of her emotions. Once she calms down, she whispers "Free, free, free" (Chopin 214), and the reader realizes that she is not having a typical reaction. Instead of being saddened by the loss of her husband, Mrs. Mallard is relieved. "She saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And s he opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome" (Chopin 214). Mrs. Mallard, instead of wondering who will support her in years to come, realizes that she will have no one binding her a... ...sease - of joy that kills" (Chopin 215). While all of the characters in the story think that Mrs. Mallard died of joy, the reader of the story knows otherwise. Mrs. Mallard actually died because she was heart-broken and shocked at the reality of her husband being alive. With the news of him being alive, her plans for a free, self-sufficient future are dashed. The use of irony is integral to the plot of "The Story of and Hour" by Kate Chopin. Situational irony is used to surprise the reader and add an interesting twist to Mrs. Mallard's discovery of her husband's death. Dramatic irony is used to give the reader insight into Mrs. Mallard's situation. The use of irony serves to make the story more interesting and the ending becomes a complete surprise to the reader. Works Cited Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." New York: Penguin Books, 1984.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Week 6 Chapter Review Important People: Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasised movement, colour, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, King of Spain, and Charles I, King of England. In 1621, the Queen Mother of France, Marie de' Medici, commissioned Rubens to paint two large allegorical cycles celebrating her life and the life of her late husband, Henry IV, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The Marie de' Medici cycle (now in the Louvre) was installed in 1625, and although he began work on the second series it was never completed. Marie was exiled from France in 1630 by her son, Louis XIII, and died in 1642 in the same house in Cologne where Rubens had lived as a child. After the end of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621, the Spanish Habsburg rulers entrusted Rubens with a number of diplomatic missions. In 1624 the French ambassador wrote from Brussels: Ã¢â¬Å"Rubens is here to take the likeness of the prince of Poland, by order of the infanta. Ã¢â¬ Between 1627 and 1630, Rubens's diplomatic career was particularly active, and he moved between the courts of Spain and England in an attempt to bring peace between the Spanish Netherlands and the United Provinces. He also made several trips to the northern Netherlands as both an artist and a diplomat. At the courts he sometimes encountered the attitude that courtiers should not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was also received as a gentleman by many. It was during this period that Rubens was twice knighted, first by Philip IV of Spain in 1624, and then by Charles I of England in 1630. He was awarded an honorary Master of Arts degree from Cambridge University in 1629. Rubens was in Madrid for eight months in 1628Ã¢â¬â1629. In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he executed several important works for Philip IV and private patrons. He also began a renewed study of Titian's paintings, copying numerous works including the Madrid Fall of Man. During this stay, he befriended the court painter Diego Velazquez and the two planned to travel to Italy together the following year. Rubens, however, returned to Antwerp and Velazquez made the journey without him. His stay in Antwerp was brief, and he soon travelled on to London where he remained until April 1630. An important work from this period is the Allegory of Peace and War. It illustrates the artist's strong concern for peace, and was given to Charles I as a gift. While Rubens's international reputation with collectors and nobility abroad continued to grow during this decade, he and his workshop also continued to paint monumental paintings for local patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Virgin Mary for the Cathedral of Antwerp is one prominent example. Rubens's last decade was spent in and around Antwerp. Major works for foreign patrons still occupied him, such as the ceiling paintings for the Banqueting House at Inigo Jones's Palace of Whitehall, but he also explored more personal artistic directions. In 1630, four years after the death of his first wife, the 53-year-old painter married 16-year-old Helene Fourment. Helene inspired the voluptuous figures in many of his paintings from the 1630s, including The Feast of Venus, The Three Graces and The Judgment of Paris. In the latter painting, which was made for the Spanish court, the artist's young wife was recognized by viewers in the figure of Venus. In an intimate portrait of her, Helene Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also known as Het Pelsken, Rubens's wife is even partially modelled after classical sculptures of the Venus Pudica, such as the Medici Venus. In 1635, Rubens bought an estate outside of Antwerp, the Steen, where he spent much of his time. Landscapes, such as his Chateau de Steen with Hunter and Farmers Returning from the Fields, reflect the more personal nature of many of his later works. He also drew upon the Netherlandish traditions of Pieter Bruegel the Elder for inspiration in later works like Flemish Kermis. Rubens died from gout on 30 May 1640. He was interred in Saint Jacob's church, Antwerp. Lord Michel Eyquem de was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance, known for popularising the essay as a literary genre and is popularly thought of as the father of Modern Skepticism. He became famous for his effortless ability to merge serious intellectual speculation with casual anecdotes and autobiographyÃ¢â¬âand his massive volume Essais (translated literally as Ã¢â¬Å"AttemptsÃ¢â¬ ) contains, to this day, some of the most widely influential essays ever written. Montaigne had a direct influence on writers the world over, including Rene Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, and perhaps William Shakespeare. In his own time, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author. The tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather than as an innovation, and his declaration that, Ã¢â¬ËI am myself the matter of my book', was viewed by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, however, Montaigne would be recognized as embodying, perhaps better than any other author of his time, the spirit of freely entertaining doubt which began to emerge at that time. He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, Ã¢â¬ËQue sais-je? Ã¢â¬Ë (Ã¢â¬ËWhat do I know? Ã¢â¬Ë). Remarkably modern even to readers today, Montaigne's attempt to examine the world through the lens of the only thing he can depend on implicitlyÃ¢â¬âhis own judgmentÃ¢â¬âmakes him more accessible to modern readers than any other author of the Renaissance. Much of modern literary non-fiction has found inspiration in Montaigne and writers of all kinds continue to read him for his masterful balance of intellectual knowledge and personal story-telling. His fame rests on the Essais, a collection of a large number of short subjective treatments of various topics published in 1580, inspired by his studies in the classics, especially Plutarch. Montaigne's stated goal is to describe humans, and especially himself, with utter frankness. Montaigne's writings are studied within literary studies, as literature and philosophy. Inspired by his consideration of the lives and ideals of the leading figures of his age, he finds the great variety and volatility of human nature to be its most basic features. He describes his own poor memory, his ability to solve problems and mediate conflicts without truly getting emotionally involved, his disdain for the human pursuit of lasting fame, and his attempts to detach himself from worldly things to prepare for his timely death. He writes about his disgust with the religious conflicts of his time, reflecting a spirit of skepticism and belief that humans are not able to attain true certainty. The longest of his essays, Apology for Raymond Sebond, contains his famous motto, Ã¢â¬Å"What do I know? Ã¢â¬ Montaigne considered marriage necessary for the raising of children, but disliked strong feelings of passionate love because he saw them as detrimental to freedom. In education, he favored concrete examples and experience over the teaching of abstract knowledge that has to be accepted uncritically. His essay Ã¢â¬Å"On the Education of ChildrenÃ¢â¬ is dedicated to Diana of Foix. The Essais exercised important influence on both French and English literature, in thought and style. Thinkers exploring similar ideas include Erasmus, Thomas More, and Guillaume Bude, who all worked about fifty years before Montaigne. Since Edward Capell first made the suggestion in 1780, some scholars believe that Shakespeare was familiar with Montaigne's essays. John Florio's translation of Montaigne's Essais became available to Shakespeare in English in 1603. It is suggested that Montaigne's influence is especially noticeable in Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"King LearÃ¢â¬ , both in language and in the skepticism present in both plays. For an example, compare Shakespeare's Hamlet to Rosencrantz, at Hamlet Act 2, scene 2, about line 240, with an earlier quote of Montaigne. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ for there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. To me it is a prison. Ã¢â¬Å". Ã¢â¬Å"Whether the events in our life are good or bad greatly depends on the way we perceive them. Ã¢â¬ Much of Blaise Pascal's skepticism in his Pensees was a result of reading Montaigne. Ralph Waldo Emerson chose Ã¢â¬Å"Montaigne; or, the SkepticÃ¢â¬ as a subject of one of his series of lectures entitled Representative Men, along side other subjects such as Shakespeare and Plato. Friedrich Nietzsche judged of Montaigne: Ã¢â¬Å"That such a man wrote has truly augmented the joy of living on this EarthÃ¢â¬ Valentin Weigel was a German theologian, philosopher and mystical writer, from Saxony, and an important precursor of later theosophy. In English he is often called Valentine Weigel. He was born at Hayn, near Dresden, into a Catholic family. He studied at Meissen, Leipzig, and Wittenberg. In 1567 he became a pastor at Zschopau, near Chemnitz. There, he lived out a quiet life, engaged in his writings. Weigel was best known for his belief that the Virgin Mary was herself the product of a virgin birth. He based his belief on the idea of the immaculate conception, which required that Mary must also be sinless in order to bear God in the flesh. He kept his ideas secret, entrusting them only to personal friends (in contrast to Jakob Bohme). He carried out his parishioner duties and kept a low profile. He left around 6000 pages in printed or manuscript works. His ideas on human nature were only gradually and posthumously published. Johann Arndt, Gottfried Arnold, and Gottfried Leibniz helped to spread Weigel's ideas. His mysticism was marked by that of Johannes Tauler and by doctrines of Paracelsus; he was also a follower of Sebastian Franck and Caspar Schwenckfeldt. Like these two latter, he emphasized the inner life. John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. In that year, Calvin was recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva. The city council resisted the implementation of Calvin and Farel's ideas, and both men were expelled. At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees. He continued to support the reform movement in Geneva, and was eventually invited back to lead its church. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite the opposition of several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. During this time, the trial of Michael Servetus was extended by libertines in an attempt to harass Calvin. However, since Servetus was also condemned and wanted by the Inquisition, outside pressure from all over Europe forced the trial to continue. Following an influx of supportive refugees and new elections to the city council, Calvin's opponents were forced out. Calvin spent his final years promoting the Reformation both in Geneva and throughout Europe. Calvin was a tireless polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy. He also exchanged cordial and supportive letters with many reformers, including Philipp Melanchthon and Heinrich Bullinger. In addition to the Institutes, he wrote commentaries on most books of the Bible, as well as theological treatises and confessional documents. He regularly preached sermons throughout the week in Geneva. Calvin was influenced by the Augustinian tradition, which led him to expound the doctrine of predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God in salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation. Calvin's writing and preachings provided the seeds for the branch of theology that bears his name. The Reformed and Presbyterian churches, which look to Calvin as a chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world. After the deaths of Calvin and his successor, Beza, the Geneva city council gradually gained control over areas of life that were previously in the ecclesiastical domain. Increasing secularisation was accompanied by the decline of the church. Even the Geneva academie was eclipsed by universities in Leiden and Heidelberg, which became the new strongholds of Calvin's ideas, first identified as Ã¢â¬Å"CalvinismÃ¢â¬ by Joachim Westphal in 1552. By 1585, Geneva, once the wellspring of the reform movement, had become merely its symbol. However, Calvin had always warned against describing him as an Ã¢â¬Å"idolÃ¢â¬ and Geneva as a new Ã¢â¬Å"JerusalemÃ¢â¬ . He encouraged people to adapt to the environments in which they found themselves. Even during his polemical exchange with Westphal, he advised a group of French-speaking refugees, who had settled in Wesel, Germany, to integrate with the local Lutheran churches. Despite his differences with the Lutherans, he did not deny that they were members of the true Church. CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition of the need to adapt to local conditions became an important characteristic of the reformation movement as it spread across Europe. Due to Calvin's missionary work in France, his programme of reform eventually reached the French-speaking provinces of the Netherlands. Calvinism was adopted in the Palatinate under Frederick III, which led to the formulation of the Heidelberg Catechism in 1563. This and the Belgic Confession were adopted as confessional standards in the first synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in 1571. Leading divines, either Calvinist or those sympathetic to Calvinism, settled in England (Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr, and Jan Laski) and Scotland (John Knox). During the English Civil War, the Calvinistic Puritans produced the Westminster Confession, which became the confessional standard for Presbyterians in the English-speaking world. Having established itself in Europe, the movement continued to spread to other parts of the world including North America, South Africa, and Korea. Calvin did not live to see the foundation of his work grow into an international movement; but his death allowed his ideas to break out of their city of origin, to succeed far beyond their borders, and to establish their own distinct character. Theodore Beza (Theodore de Beze or de Besze) was a French Protestant Christian theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. A member of the monarchomaque movement who opposed absolute monarchy, he was a disciple of John Calvin and lived most of his life in Switzerland. As Calvin's successor, Beza was very successful, not only in carrying on his work but also in giving peace to the Church at Geneva. The magistrates had fully appropriated the ideas of Calvin, and the direction of spiritual affairs, the organs of which were the Ã¢â¬Å"ministers of the wordÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the consistoryÃ¢â¬ , was founded on a solid basis. No doctrinal controversy arose after 1564. The discussions concerned questions of a practical, social, or ecclesiastical nature, such as the supremacy of the magistrates over the pastors, freedom in preaching, and the obligation of the pastors to submit to the majority of the campagnie des pasteurs. Beza obtruded his will in no way upon his associates, and took no harsh measures against injudicious or hot-headed colleagues, though sometimes he took their cases in hand and acted as mediator; and yet he often experienced an opposition so extreme that he threatened to resign. Although he was inclined to take the part of the magistrates, he knew how to defend the rights and independence of the spiritual power when occasion arose, without, however, conceding to it such a preponderating influence as did Calvin. His activity was great. He mediated between the compagnie and the magistracy; the latter continually asked his advice even in political questions. He corresponded with all the leaders of the Reformed party in Europe. After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572), he used his influence to give to the refugees a hospitable reception at Geneva. In 1574 he wrote his De jure magistratuum (Right of Magistrates), in which he emphatically protested against tyranny in religious matters, and affirmed that it is legitimate for a people to oppose an unworthy magistracy in a practical manner and if necessary to use weapons and depose them. Without being a great dogmatician like his master, nor a creative genius in the ecclesiastical realm, Beza had qualities which made him famous as humanist, exegete, orator, and leader in religious and political affairs, and qualified him to be the guide of the Calvinists in all Europe. In the various controversies into which he was drawn, Beza often showed an excess of irritation and intolerance, from which Bernardino Ochino, pastor of the Italian congregation at Zurich (on account of a treatise which contained some objectionable points on polygamy), and Sebastian Castellio at Basel (on account of his Latin and French translations of the Bible) had especially to suffer. With Reformed France Beza continued to maintain the closest relations. He was the moderator of the general synod which met in April, 1571, at La Rochelle and decided not to abolish church discipline or to acknowledge the civil government as head of the Church, as the Paris minister Jean Morel and the philosopher Pierre Ramus demanded; it also decided to confirm anew the Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper (by the expression: Ã¢â¬Å"substance of the body of ChristÃ¢â¬ ) against Zwinglianism, which caused a very unpleasant discussion between Beza and Ramus and Heinrich Bullinger. In the following year (May, 1572) he took an important part in the national synod at Nimes. He was also interested in the ontroversies which concerned the Augsburg Confession in Germany, especially after 1564, on the doctrine of the Person of Christ and the sacrament, and published several works against Westphal, Hesshusen, Selnecker, Johannes Brenz, and Jakob Andrea. This made him, especially after 1571, hated by all those who adhered to Lutheranism in opposition to Mela nchthon Jeanne d'Albret, also known as Jeanne III or Joan III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome, and was the mother of Henry of Bourbon, who became King of Navarre and of France as Henry IV, the first Bourbon king. She became the Duchess of Vendome by marriage. She was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, and a key figure in the French Wars of Religion. The power struggle between Catholics and Huguenots for control of the French court and France as a whole, led to the outbreak of the French Wars of Religion in 1562. Jeanne and Antoine were at court, when the latter made the decision to support the Catholic faction, which was headed by the House of Guise; and in consequence, threatened to repudiate Jeanne when she refused to attend Mass. Catherine de' Medici, in an attempt to steer a middle course between the two warring factions, also pleaded with Jeanne to obey her husband for the sake of peace but to no avail. Jeanne stood her ground and staunchly refused to abandon the Calvinist religion, and continued to have Protestant services conducted in her apartments. When many of the other nobles also joined the Catholic camp, Catherine had no choice but to support the Catholic faction. Fearing both her husband's and Catherine's anger, Jeanne left Paris in March 1562 and made her way south to seek refuge in Bearn. When Jeanne had stopped for a brief sojourn at her husband's ancestral chateau in Vendome on 14 May to break her lengthy homeward journey, she failed to prevent a 400-strong Huguenot force from invading the town. The soldiers marauded through the streets of Vendome, ransacked all the churches, maltreated the inhabitants, and pillaged the ducal chapel, which housed the tombs of Antoine's ancestors. In consequence, her husband adopted a belligerent stance with her. He issued orders to Blaise de Lasseran-Massencome, seigneur de Montluc to have her arrested and returned o Paris where she would subsequently be sent to a Catholic convent. She resumed her journey after quitting Vendome and managed to elude her captors, safely passing over the frontier into Bearn before she could be intercepted by the seigneur de Montluc and his troops. At the end of the year, Antoine was fatally wounded at the siege of Rouen and died before Jeanne could obtain the necessary permission to cross over enemy li nes, in order to be at his bedside where she had wished nurse him. His mistress instead was summoned to his deathbed. Jeanne henceforth ruled Navarre as the sole queen regnant; her sex being no impediment to her sovereignity. Her son Henry subsequently became Ã¢â¬Å"first prince of the bloodÃ¢â¬ . Jeanne often brought him along on her many progresses through her domains to oversee administrative affairs. Jeanne haughtily refused an offer of matrimony issued by King Philip II of Spain who had hoped to marry her to his son, on the condition that she return to the Catholic faith. Jeanne's position in the conflicts remained relatively neutral in the beginning, being mainly preoccupied with military defences, given Navarre's geographic location beside Catholic Spain. Papal envoys arrived and tried to coerce and threaten her into returning to Catholicism and abolishing heresy within her kingdom. Her response was to coldly reply that Ã¢â¬Å"the authority of the Pope's legate is not recognised in BearnÃ¢â¬ . At one stage there was a papal plot led by Pope Pius IV to have her kidnapped and turned over to the Spanish Inquistion. Jeanne was summoned to Rome to be examined for heresy under the triple penalty of excommunication, the confiscation of her property, and a declaration that her kingdom was available to any ruler who wished to invade it. This last threat alarmed King Philip, and the blatant interference by the Papacy in French affairs also enraged Catherine de' Medici who, on behalf of Charles IX, sent angry letters of protest to the Pope. The papal threats never materialised. During the French Court's royal progress between January 1564 and May 1565, Jeanne met and held talks with Catherine de' Medici at Macon and Nerac. When the third religious war broke out in 1568, however, she decided to actively support the Huguenot cause. Feeling that their lives were in danger from encroaching French Catholic and Spanish troops, Jeanne and Henry sought efuge in the Protestant stronghold of La Rochelle. As Minister of Propaganda, Jeanne wrote manifestos and composed letters to sympathetic foreign rulers, requesting their assistance. Jeanne had visualised the province of Guyenne as a Ã¢â¬Å"Protestant homelandÃ¢â¬ and played a leading role in the military actions from 1569 to 1570 with the aim of seeing her dream come to fru ition. Whilst at La Rochelle, she assumed control of the fortifications, finances, Intelligence gathering, and the maintaining of discipline amongst the civilian populace. She used her own jewellery as security in a loan obtained from Queen Elizabeth I of England, and oversaw the well-being of the numerous refugees who sought shelter within La Rochelle. She often accompanied Admiral de Coligny to the battlefield where the fighting was at its most intense; together they inspected the defences and rallied the Huguenot forces. Jeanne also established a religious seminary in La Rochelle, drawing the most learned Huguenot men in France within its walls. Following the Huguenot defeat on 16 March 1569 at the Battle of Jarnac where Jeanne's brother-in-law, Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Conde was killed, Gaspard de Coligny assumed command of the Huguenot forces nominally on behalf of her son Henry and Conde's son, Henri I de Bourbon, Prince de Conde. Jeanne had established them as the legitimate leaders of the Huguenot cause. After her funeral, which was conducted according to the rites of the Protestant Church, a cortege bearing her body travelled through the streets of Vendome. She was buried beside her husband at Ducal Church of collegiale Saint-Georges. The tombs were destroyed when the church was sacked in 1793 during the French Revolution. Her son Henry succeeded her, becoming King Henry III of Navarre. In 1589, he ascended the French throne as Henry IV; founding the Bourbon line of kings. Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands, nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"the Iron DukeÃ¢â¬ in the Low Countries because of his harsh and cruel rule there and his role in the execution of his political opponents and the massacre of several cities. In 1567, Philip, who was a zealous opponent of Protestantism, sent Alba into the Netherlands at the head of an army of 10,000 men, with unlimited powers for the extirpation of the heretics. Alba quickly erected a tribunal, the Council of Troubles, which soon became known to the Calvinists as the Ã¢â¬Å"Council of Blood,Ã¢â¬ to try all persons who had been engaged in the late commotions that the rule of Philip had excited. During the ten years it operated, thousands of people were executed. The precise number is disputed: Dutch sources cite 18,000 victims, while Spanish accounts mention only a few hundred. About 12,000 casualties can be considered as the most accurate estimate, of which 1,083 were executed. Alba imprisoned the Count of Egmont and the Count of Hoorn, the two popular leaders of the dissatisfied Dutch nobles, and had them condemned to death even though they were Catholics. Alba attempted to raise money by imposing the Spanish alcabala, a tax of 10% on all sales (Ã¢â¬Å"tenth pennyÃ¢â¬ tax) on the Low Countries, and this aroused the opposition of many Catholic residents as well. The exiles from the Low Countries, who called themselves Geuzen (French gueux, Ã¢â¬Å"beggarsÃ¢â¬ ), encouraged by the general resistance to his government, fitted out a fleet of privateers, and after strengthening themselves by successful depredations, seized the town of Den Briel (Brielle). Thus Alba, by his unrelenting harshness, became the unwitting instrument of the future independence of the seven Dutch provinces. On 22 August, Alba, accompanied by a body of select Spanish troops, made his entry into Brussels. He immediately appointed a council to condemn without trial those suspected of heresy and rebellion. On 1 June 1568, Brussels witnessed the simultaneous decapitation of twenty-two noblemen; on 6 June followed the execution of the Counts of Egmond and Hoorne. The fleet of the exiles, having met the Spanish fleet, defeated it and reduced Holland and Mons. The States of Holland, assembling at Dordrecht in 1572, openly declared against Alba's government, and marshaled under the banners of the prince of Orange. Alba's preparations to defeat the gathering storm were made with his usual rapidity and vigour, and he succeeded in recovering Mons, Mechelen and Zutphen, under the conduct of his son Don Fadrique. All three cities were sacked and many civilians killed. With the exception of Zeeland and Holland, he regained all the provinces; and at last his son stormed Naarden, massacring every man, woman and child, proceeded to invest the city of Haarlem, which, after standing an obstinate siege, was taken and pillaged. Their next attack was upon Alkmaar; but there they were met with such desperate resistance that Alba was forced to retire. William II, Prince of Orange was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. William II, Prince of Orange, was the son of stadtholder Frederik Hendrik of Orange and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels. William the Silent had been succeeded in the position of stadtholder and as commander of the Dutch States Army by his son Maurits of Nassau, who in turn was followed by his brother Frederick Henry. William IIÃ¢â¬â¢s ancestors governed in conjunction with the States-General, an assembly made up of representatives of each of the seven provinces but usually dominated by the largest and wealthiest province, Holland. On May 2, 1641, William married Mary Henrietta Stuart, the Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria in the Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace, London. In 1648 he opposed acceptance of the Treaty of Munster, despite the fact that it recognized the independence of the Netherlands. Secretly, William opened his own negotiations with France with the goal of extending his own territory under a centralized government. In addition, he worked for the restoration of his brother-in-law, Charles II, to the throne of England. In 1650 William II became involved in a bitter quarrel with the province of Holland and the powerful regents of Amsterdam, like Andries Bicker and his cousin Cornelis de Graeff over troop reduction following the Treaty of Munster. William opposed the reduction in the size of the army which would diminish his powerbase. This resulted in William putting eight members (oa. Jacob de Witt) of the provincial assembly in prison in the castle of Loevestein. In addition he sent his cousin Willem Frederik of Nassau-Dietz with an army of 10 thousand troops with the aim of taking Amsterdam by force. Bad weather foiled this campaign. After having served as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel for only three years, he died of smallpox in 1650. His son William was born one week after his death. This was the beginning of the First Stadtholderless Period for the provinces Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel. His son succeeded him in 1672 as stadtholder and later, in 1689, also became king of England. Pope Saint Pius V, born Antonio Ghislieri, was Pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman liturgy within the Latin Church. Pius V declared saint Thomas Aquinas a Doctor of the Church and patronized prominent sacred music composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. As Cardinal Ghislieri he gained a reputation for putting orthodoxy before personalities, prosecuting eight French Bishops for heresy. He also stood firm against nepotism, rebuking his predecessor Pope Pius IV to his face when he wanted to make a 13-year old member of his family a cardinal and subsidise a nephew from the Papal treasury. In affairs of state, Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth I of England for schism and persecutions of English Catholics during her reign. He also arranged the formation of the Holy League, an alliance of Catholic states. Although outnumbered, the Holy League famously defeated the Ottomans, who had threatened to overrun Europe, at the Battle of Lepanto. This victory Pius V attributed to the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary and instituted the feast, Our Lady of Victory. St Pius V recognized attacks on papal supremacy in the Catholic Church and was desirous of limiting their advancement. In France, where his influence was stronger, he took several measures to oppose the Protestant Huguenots. He directed the dismissal of Cardinal Odet de Coligny and seven bishops, nullified the royal edict tolerating the extramural services of the Reformers, introduced the Roman catechism, restored papal discipline, and strenuously opposed all compromise with the Huguenot nobility. Pius V died on 1 May 1572. He was succeeded by Pope Gregory XIII. In 1696, the process of Pius's canonisation was started through the efforts of the Master of the Order of Preachers, Antonin Cloche. He also immediately commissioned a representative tomb from the sculptor Pierre Le Gros the Younger to be erected in the Sistine Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The pope's body was placed in it in 1698. St Pius V was beatified by Pope Clement X in the year 1672, and was later canonized by Pope Clement XI on 24 May 1712. Pope St Pius V also helped financially in the construction of the city of Valletta, Malta's capital city by sending his military engineer Francesco Laparelli to design the fortification walls. Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein, actually von Waldstein, was a Bohemian soldier and politician, who offered his services, and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Danish period of the Thirty Years' War, to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and one of the major figures of the Thirty Years' War. A successful generalissimo who had made himself ruler of the lands of the Duchy of Friedland in northern Bohemia, Wallenstein found himself released from service in 1630 after Ferdinand grew wary of his ambition. Several Protestant victories over Catholic armies induced Ferdinand to recall Wallenstein, who again turned the war in favor of the Imperial cause. Dissatisfied with the Emperor's treatment of him, Wallenstein considered allying with the Protestants. However, Ferdinand had the general assassinated at Eger (Cheb) in Egerland by one of the army's officials, Walter Devereux. Wallenstein's particular genius lay in recognizing a new way for funding war: instead of merely plundering enemies, he called for a new method of systematic Ã¢â¬Å"war taxesÃ¢â¬ . Even a city or a prince on the side of the Emperor had to pay taxes towards the war. He understood the enormous wastage of resources that resulted from tax exactions on princes and cities of defeated enemies only, and desired to replace this with a Ã¢â¬Å"balancedÃ¢â¬ system of taxation; wherein both sides bore the cost of a war. He was unable to fully realize this ambition; and in fact his idea led to the random exploitation of whole populations on either side, until finally, almost fifteen years after his death, the war had become so expensive that the warring parties were forced to make peace. In any case, Wallenstein's idea inspired many, among them, Colbert, to Ã¢â¬Å"pluck the goose with a minimum of screechingÃ¢â¬ . Chapter Review Questions: 1)During the Wars of Religion, politics played an important role in the stances of French leaders. French leaders were persuaded to stand by the religion that would give them the most powerful political stance; they had no interest in the true goals of the religions. Catherine de' Medici, a relative of Pope Clement VII, married the duke of Orleans at age 14; he would become King Henry II of France. But Henry died after about six years of rule, and his successor, Francis II, died the year after that, leaving Catherine as regent for the 10-year-old Charles IX. Catherine let the Jesuits back into France and, seeing the alarming probability that the Reformation might gain a toehold in France, the Jesuits began circulating provocative rumors (1567) of a Huguenot plot to sack and burn Paris. The Huguenot leader, Admiral Coligny, began to exercise more influence over Charles in matters of state than Catherine, so she used the occasion of a political marriage designed to make peace between Protestants and Catholics Ã¢â¬â the marriage of Henry of Navarre to Marguerite de Valois Ã¢â¬â to have Coligny assassinated. The plot failed and Coligny was only wounded, but the Huguenot leaders, assembled in Paris in great numbers for the wedding, were infuriated. Charles vowed punishments for the plotters, but with all the important heretics in one place, Catherine saw her final solution to the Huguenot problem: She browbeat the young King into approving a massacre Ã¢â¬â for reasons of national security. On Sunday, 24 August 1572, at daybreak, French Catholic troops and Catholic citizens drew blood. An eyewitness described the scene: The slaughter in Paris lasted until 17 September, but spread to the provinces, where it continued until 3 October. Admiral Coligny was among the dead. In all of France about 50,000 were slain Ã¢â¬â more than twice as many people killed over religion in 40 days, as French revolutionaries killed over politics in three years! When news of this holocaust of French Protestants reached the world, Catherine de' Medici received the congratulations of all the Catholic powers, and Pope Gregory XIII ordered bonfires lighted and the singing of the Te Deum. Indeed, the Pope's joy was so great that he commanded a gold medal to be minted, with the inscription, Ã¢â¬Å"Slaughter [strages] of the Huguenots. He then had Giorgio Vasari paint pictures in the Vatican of Ã¢â¬Å"the glorious triumph over a perfidious race. Ã¢â¬ An ecclesiastical annalist named Strype suggested that the comet of 1572 was a token of Divine wrath provoked by the massacre. But if God was watching, he made no move to turn the events begun on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1572. The realization that a solution was needed was finally realised. 2 )Spain became the dominant power in Europe in the 16th century because of the countless gold and treasure from its New World territories. This era is known by the Spanish as El siglo de oro, Ã¢â¬Å"the golden centuryÃ¢â¬ . All this money allowed Spain to purchase and develop the best military technology of the time. However Spain's greatest weakness with all this money was how it ran its very society. Spain had a very feudal society. One's place in it was determined by your birth. Spain's nobilty looked down on any labour as beneath them. Any labour or business was viewed as tasks for commoners. As a result, Spanish nobility was expected to live a life of leisure. When the highest and wealthiest portion of your society doesn't work, all they're doing is spending money, but not generating any new funds. It was only a matter of time before Spain burned through all its wealth. Spain was also exceedingly intolerant towards other religions. Spain's period of wealth and dominance corresponded with the Protestant reformation in Europe. The Spanish king Philp II was a very devout Catholic, who viewed the Reformation as heresy and the work of the Devil. Philp made it the goal of his entire reign to suppress the spread of Protestantism. He was only successful with this goal somewhat. Under Philip's reign Spain became its most powerful, but also started its decline. During his reign the Netherlands revolted against the Spanish Hapsburg crown, Spain experienced costly wars against France and England, and Portugal gained its independence from Spain. Philip II was also successful in that he consolidated Spain's overseas empire, succeeded in massively increasing the importation of silver in the face of English, Dutch and French privateering, and ended the major threat posed to Europe by the Ottoman navy. During his reign, Spain became the greatest naval power in the Mediterranean. 3)A politique is a ruler who focuses more on what is good for their country than on religion. Also, I don't know if Henry of Navarre can be called a politique, because the entire reason he became king came from a power struggle between the Huguenots(french protestants) and french Catholics. The same goes for William of Orange, as he was significant as a result of the revolt in the Netherlands against their Spanish rulers. The Spanish attempted to convert the Netherlands, which were largely Protestant, to Catholicism, which was the established religion in Spain. Elizabeth I, on the other hand, was definitely a politique. Elizabeth took the throne after her sister, Mary I died in 1558. Mary had been a staunch Catholic like her mother, Catherine of Aragon, who originally came from Spain. Mary herself took the throne after their younger brother Edward VI died young due to lifelong poor health. Their father, Henry VIII, had established the Church of England, in order to no longer have to answer to the Pope so that he could divorce Catherine and marry Elizabeth's mother, Anne Boleyn. Mary did not like the Church of England, and so when she took the throne in 1553, she reinstated the Catholic church and had those who refused to convert executed. Elizabeth, by comparison, concentrated more on her foreign relations than on religion, although she did make the Church of England the official religion of England. 4)In 1534 King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English church such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn. Pope Clement VII, considering that the earlier marriage had been entered under a papal dispensation and how Catherine's nephew, Emperor Charles V, might react do such a move, refused the annulment. Eventually, Henry, although theologically opposed to Protestantism, took the position of Supreme Head of the Church of England to ensure the annulment of his marriage. He was excommunicated by Pope Paul III. Henry maintained a strong preference for traditional Catholic practices and, during his reign, Protestant reformers ere unable to make many changes to the practices of the Church of England. Indeed, this part of Henry's reign saw the trial for heresy of Protestants as well as Roman Catholics. Under his son, Edward VI, more Protestant-influenced forms of worship were adopted. Under the leadership of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, a more radical reformation proceeded. A new pattern of worship was set out in the Book of Common Prayer (1549 and 1552). These were based on the older liturgy but influenced by Protestant principles. The confession of the reformed Church of England was set out in the Forty-two Articles (later revised to thirty-nine). The reformation however was cut short by the death of the king. Queen Mary I, who succeeded him, returned England again to the authority of the Pope, thereby ending the first attempt at an independent Church of England. During Mary's reign, many leaders and common people were burnt for their refusal to recant of their reformed faith. These are known as the Marian martyrs and the persecution has led to her nickname of Ã¢â¬Å"Bloody MaryÃ¢â¬ . Mary also died childless and so it was left to the new regime of her half-sister Elizabeth to resolve the direction of the church. The settlement under Elizabeth I (from 1558), known as the Elizabethan settlement, developed the via media (middle way) character of the Church of England, a church moderately Reformed in doctrine, as expressed in the Thirty-nine Articles, but also emphasising continuity with the Catholic and Apostolic traditions of the Church Fathers. It was also an established church (constitutionally established by the state with the head of state as its supreme governor). The exact nature of the relationship between church and state would be a source of continued friction into the next century. 5)Thirty Years' War , a series of European conflicts from 1618 to 1648, fought primarily in Germany. The war started in Bohemia with a Protestant revolt against the Holy Roman Empire and eventually involved almost all of the countries of Europe. By its final years, religious issues had been submerged and it had become a struggle for power between Austria and Spain on one side and France on the other. Politics determined the outcome of the ar greatly. The Thirty Years' War rearranged the European power structure. The last decade of the conflict saw clear signs of Spain weakening. While Spain was fighting in France, Portugal Ã¢â¬â which had been under personal union with Spain for 60 years Ã¢â¬â acclaimed John IV of Braganza as king in 1640, and the House of Braganza became the new dynasty of Portugal (see Portuguese Restoration War, for further information ). Meanwhile, Spain was forced to accept the independence of the Dutch Republic in 1648, ending the Eighty Years' War. Bourbon France challenged Habsburg Spain's supremacy in the Franco-Spanish War (1635-59); gaining definitive ascendancy in the War of Devolution (1667Ã¢â¬â68), and the Franco-Dutch War (1672Ã¢â¬â78), under the leadership of Louis XIV. The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabruck and Munster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618Ã¢â¬â1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568Ã¢â¬â1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. The Peace of Westphalia treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, of the House of Habsburg, the Kingdoms of Spain, France, Sweden, the Dutch Republic, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the free imperial cities. The war needed to reach the point of great unrest before it could be resolved with a treaty. 6)It seems Ã¢â¬Å"meaninglessÃ¢â¬ only because the European conflagration lacked a clear point of dispute, not that it lacked any purpose. On the contrary, there were too many points of contention or flash points, far too numerous to even list in a short essay. Once the breaking point was reached on one or some of them, it set off a chain reaction of other open conflicts of long simmering divisions, mostly religious, but those caused by changing balance of powers. This is far from unusual. World War II ended up being a war between two major European alliances for complicated broken treaties and border violations, but was started by a single assassination of an Austro-Hungarian archduke. There was no single principle or cause being fought for in either case. World War II has a simpler narrative, totalitarian states like Germany and Japan attempted to conquer the world, and the good guys resisted and beat them back, but even that belies a deeper complexity in the reasons and chain of events that led to it. The Thirty Years War was fought not for any simple cause, but for too many different reasons, so that for the modern generations, it seems altogether too obscure and frivolous. Nothing could be further from the truth. It was in fact a major realignment of European powers in the aftermath of the battles of the Reformation movement as well as the decline of Spanish Power and the eventual breakup of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire. In fact, the consequences of this breakup has historically lead to both World War I and World War II. In order to fully understand the causes of those major world wars, a thorough understanding of the Thirty Years War is a must.