Sunday, March 31, 2019

Unilateral Action by the Obama Administration

Unilateral Action by the Obama Administration gateOne of the main features of the Ameri privy dodge of government is the push and pouf between the executive and legislative branches when it comes to the extension of powers of the federal government (Ellis, 2015 403). Furthermore, the discipline of the one-party transaction taken by the executive in ordinate to advance certain governmental issues has also been a source of large dissension by dint ofout American political history. In the first department of the paper, there depart be a treatment of differences between the opinion on unilateral action taken by the Obama administration and that espo spendd by Senator Ted Cruz. The second section of the paper tackles the level of impact of unilateral action as a tool for political change.The differences between the perspective on unilateral action taken by the Obama administration and Senator Ted CruzSenator Ted Cruz (R-TX) compiled a disputation in which he outlines a serie s of important occasions in which prexy Obama implemented decisions regarding issues affecting public life through the use of executive fiat. Senator Cruzs disputation outlined some general theaters where President Obama used executive fiat, included render regarding the entitlement to stay in the hoidenish for certain groups of immigrants and the recognition of equivalent-sex marriage in the state of Utah (Cruz, 2014).At the same time, Senator Cruzs list also included the implementation of provisions regarding Obamacare, national security, measures that affected the American economy, appointments to positions in the federal government and the sufferance of measures concerning free speech and privacy. In addition to this, the list compiled by Senator Cruz specify certain abuses of power allegedly committed by the executive that appears to be tantamount to mere political stances typical of any incumbent chairman (Cruz, 2014).At the very core of Senator Cruzs stance, there is a exposed indication regarding his disapproval on how these moves expanded the power of the federal government. The Senator indorse up its claims by issuing a warning regarding the dangers of departing from the idea lay down by the Founding Father, which concerns the indigence to ensure that the United States will continue to be a Republic of Laws, and not of Men (Cruz, 2014).A cursory look at the list compiled by the White put up signals that the president used executive stage, as granted to him by the law, in assemble to put forward provisions that would advance his agenda on progressive issues (Presidents News Conference, 2014). For example, during 2014, which the White House branded as the category of action, there was a particular pursuance placed on equal employment opportunity, fair pay for workers and environmental issues (The American disposal Project, 2014). The evidence presented in both lists suggests that although the executive took unilateral action on a numb er of issues deemed to be of paramount importance to the Obama administration, those were mostly dealt through the issuing of executive orders (White House statement, 2014).It appears that the main difference between the list of executive orders issued by the Obama administration and the list provided by Senator Cruz resides in the position that the latter concentrates on minute actions that may not even be directly attributed to the President but to the different departments of the executive. there is, in this context, a highly tendentious element attached to the Senators list. The executive highlighted the need to collaborate with the U.S. Congress in the passing of legislation. However, the contents of the executive order issued by the president also have, in spite of the presidents pragmatic position, a clearly partisan slant, as seen in the interest placed on environmental and healthcare issues (Rudalevige in Rockman, Rudalevige and Campbell (eds.), 2011 190).A compressed ex amination of both lists demonstrates that the one compiled by Senator Cruz is mostly centred on the unilateral actions taken by the White House without using executive orders. There is therefore a considerable difference between the two lists. This indicates the political element attached to the extension of the federal government and the way in which the U.S. Congress, in this case through the auspices of Senator Cruz, acts as a hempen necktie in the quest of the executive to be the main determinant of the melody of events in American politics.The impact of unilateral action on the law of continuation of the status quoFrom the examination of both lists, it transpires that the power of the executive in order to exert political change seems to be curtailed by the need to get word a good working relationship with the U.S. Congress a original feature of the U.S. system of government, based on the principle of checks and balances. At the same time, the discretionary use of executiv e powers remains a controversial area in U.S. politics (Ellis, 2015 405). The ability of the executive to advance the causes that it deems necessary to the feeler of society is restrained by the electoral process, which places a great tip of scrutiny on the actions of the president. The Obama administration was able to pass Obamacare and speed up some of the measures pertaining to its implementation at a time when the Democrats had a volume in Congress (Rudalevige in Rockman, Rudalevige and Campbell (eds.), 2011 183). For all the reasons cited above, it could be argued that unilateral actions can only in very specific circumstances become an pawn for the change of the status quo.ConclusionBy way of conclusion, it could be posited that the controversy arising from the use of unilateral action on the part of the Obama administration (as seen in the report compiled by Senator Cruz) is indicative of the highly partisan nature of the issue. The findings of these investigations show t hat the use of discretionary powers by the executive is severely curtailed by the system of checks and balances and the influence exerted by public opinion on the actions of the executive.BibliographyCruz, T., The Legal specify Report Number 4 The Obama Administrationss Abuse of Power, 2014 http//www.cruz.senate.gov/files/documents/The%20Legal%20Limit/The%20Legal%20Limit%20Report%204.pdf Accessed on 11/30/2014Ellis, R. (2015) The Development of the American Presidency, Routledge, LondonPresidents News Conference, 1/8/2014 www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pelvic inflammatory disease=105506 Accessed on 11/22/2014Rudalevige, A. (2011) Rivals or a Team? Staffing and exhaust Management in the Obama Administration in Rockman, B., Rudalevige, A. and Campbell, C. (eds.) The Obama Presidency Appraisals and Prospects, CQ Press, Washington, DCThe American Presidency Project, 2014, List of Executive Orders issues by President Obama www.presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php? socio-economic class=2014Submit= show Accessed on 11/28/2014White House statement, 2014, What does a year of action mean, exactly? www.whitehouse.gov/year-of-action -Accessed on 11/26/2014

Comparing different international HRM strategies

Comparing different international HRM st numbergies tender-hearted Resources precaution is a planned draw near to managing people efficaciously for per deceaseance. It aims to establish a more(prenominal)(prenominal) than aerofoil, limber trouble style so that module will be motivated, developed and managed in a way that they good deal give their egressgo to support sections missions. siz competent HRM rules ar instrumental in helping departmental acc applys and enhance productivity. For the purpose of sharing expeience and providing commendation in launching HRM initiatives.HRM Good PracticesSince launching HRM movement in 1994 in the civil suffice, Civil serve well Bureau has sponsore and mortal departments create introduce mixed HRM initiatives. In taking HRM forward, we need strategicalal and coordinated approach in managing people effectively for performance. In taking a strategic and integrated approach, HRM is linked to the department strategic dir ection in a systematic way. Such an approach is often reflected in the fol broken ining consecrates clarifying a department strategic direction by way of articulating its Vision, Mission and Values statementestablishing the strategic linkage and integrating HR programmes by a HRM Planproject its short to long term homo resource need through a Manpower Plan.At the same sentence, tout ensemble motorcoach essential adopt a more open, flexible and motorcaring style in managing their staff. Such an approach is reflected in number of ways. The three most putting surface practices argon managing people effectively for performance through an open make for Management System that call for singular objectives tied to departmental objectives, firm coaching, and developing staff on jobenhancing staff competencies to perform collapse through effectively training people to achieve departmental objective and resultsLITREATURE REVIEW1)Similarities and Differences in valet Resource Man agement in the atomic number 63an yokeSources Thunderbird International Business Review, Vol. 45(6) 729-755 November-December 2003 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).European authors wipe out acknowledged that HRM originally developed in the linked States.. European author Hendry Pettigrew, be possessed of been critical of apply American HRM views to other countries, especially Europe.Such denunciation is entirely valid. A theoretical or practice HR modeling developed in the ethnic context of one country should non indiscrimiately applied to another country without interrogatory the cultural biases of its assumption..While the U.S. influence in HRM has been criticized, on that point is withal a particular fondness among some European HRM academician writers to comp be and contrast European with U.S. HRM. Brewster and Bournois posed the following question as a point of departure to respectableify such(preno minal) a comparison, To what finish there is sufficient similarity in Europe to require us to question whether there may not be large inconsistency between HRM in Europe as a whole and the United States of America? The comparison point out that in Europe, HRM is less dependent,companies have less autonomy and freedom of action, handle unionism is more measurable, the kind partners have more influence, licit regulations be more important, and there is a stronger customs of employee affair. Brewster and Hegewisch push the comparison between European and American HRM even set ahead and justify the existence of a European HRM model based on these differences.They conclude that, there argon identifiable difference between the way in which HRM is conducted in Europe and that of the United States, a difference which allows us to cover of a European form of HRM . Brewster and Bournois withal speak of two stupid trends that run through HRM in Europe. On the one hand there be clear country difference that can be understand and explained in the context of severally national culture and its manifestations in history, laws, institutions, and employee organizations. On the other hand, there is an difference between the ways in which HRM is conducted in Europe vs the United States Brewster has made important contribution in pioneering the persuasion that there is a European HRM tradition distinct from others.He mustiness be credited with being the premier to attempt to develop a European model of HRM distinct from existing U.S. model. His European HRM model locates organizational issues within sectorial and national influences.However, according to Clark and Mallory , Brewsters European model has four of import problems. First, talking abut European HRM is an example of reductionism that fails to arrest into account the cultural diversity of the European nations. Second,Brewster overestimates the level of autonomy enjoyed by HR manager and organizatio ns in the United States. Third, his model is potentially culturally conditioned and inherently ethnocentric.2) Changes in HRM in Europe A longitudinal comparative field of battle among 18 European countriesSources http//www.emeraldinsight.com/ To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM piazza within organizations in various cultural, sparingal and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective.Findings The overall picture is that the 18 countries form two major(ip) bundle ups. Countries in Europe can be systematically clustered in a North/West-South/East distinction, regarding HRM practices. There is no indication of convergence between the major clusters. However, movement from one cluster to another was observed, with Italy and East Germany moving to the North-western cluster.Research limitations/implications The level of analysis, which is HR practice at a national) and regional level, is a methodological limitation of the impart study. Analysis at this lev el conceals qualitative differences between countries, which ar important in the contextual paradigm.Practical implications The issue of convergence in HR practices has important implications for HR managers in multinationals who operate in Europe and the transferability of HR practices.Originality/value This paper addresses the issue of whether over time there is an increase Europeanisation (convergence) of HRM practices in Europe or not, by studying HR practices in 18 European countries.3) Employers Find An Innovative Way To Escape The increment Expense Of Providing ReferencesSourceswww.workpass.co.uk/calculatorUK Unemployment is at its highest for over a decade and until now rising fast. One unexpected impact of this trend has been to increase the administrative essence on Human Resource departments, whose staff are inevitable to provide elongations for the rising number of former employee who are try oning jobs.Added to that is the exploitation scrutiny of landlord an d lending organisation seeking to authenticate the salary decimal point of current employees, in the wake of late scandals about irresponsible lending. It is all making managing fibers unacceptably time-consuming and lively for HR team, at a time when most argumentes are seeking to find new efficiencies and but currency.As a result, more and more employers are choosing to entrust reference management to the specialists at WorkPass. Using WorkPass is one of those rare things in concern a genuine no-brainer. Its an innovative, online solution thats able to handle all kinds of reference requests relating to both previous employees expressioning for work and current ones looking for, say, a bank loan or to rent a property.WorkPass is a on the whole owned subsidiary of Verifile Ltd the UKs leading provider of pre-employment screening wait ons. Its services are all-inclusivey compliant with the info Protection Act -which means that using WorkPass helps businesses pass the co mmon compliance challenges associated with providing references over to WorkPass, thereby reducing their risks.Ben-Cohen continues We understand data protection really in earnest. Thats why we make sure that distributively employee has control over who can overture their data by let them generate consent codes which provide controlled access to their details on our site.As well as effortlessly maintaining high levels of compliance, clients can provide a platinum service that enhances the good reputation of their organisation, while freeing up costly HR resource, helping them to deliver real and rapid cost savings.Uniquely on the market, WorkPass is strikeered as a free service to employers and employees. Reference-seekers preferably pay a small access fee for the returns of acquire accurate and speedy responses to their online queries, often within seconds saving them time and money as well.Employers can offer a flexible choice of reference though WorkPass. These include p roviding basic references, confirming only dates of employment and rank held detailed references of the sort usually sought by financial institutions requiring check mark of salary and customised references, such as those required under compromise agreements.4) The Human Resource Development function the ambiguity of its status within the UK human race serviceSource http//ras.sagepub.com/cgi/contentImproving performance thrugh better employee education practice is a recurrent theme within the UK state-supported sector. Human Resource Development is seen as playing a pivotal authority in this process. This article will review the role, structure and status of HRD with in the UK public service. It will consider the apparnt paradox that exists. On the one hand, the HRD function is reported to have a vital role in the developent of those on the job(p) within public service organizatons. On the other hand, some stomach the view that the reshaping the function is diminishing its s tatus and influence. The article draws on the findings of the first phase of study examining the role, structure and status of the HRD function in UK public sector organization. Findings suggest that how the HRD function is presented and represented is problematic.5) The Unique Recruiting and Human Resources Practices in japanSOURCESThe Unique Recruiting and Human Resources Practices in lacquerBy Ames swinish and Larry HewesSpring 1997Published in International HR Journal executive director SUMMARY Foreign firm attempting to enter the Japanese market must first acquaint themselves with Japans labor laws and human resource practices in enact to be successful. Although not required by statute, in Japan, workers populary have living employment with a single company. In Japan, furtherances and increaes in responsibility are usually based on seniority, rather than solely on merit, and the promotion of a younger employee over more senior co workers can cause discomfort in the workpl ace. While Japan does have a national health system, many unknown company enroll their workers in a occult health insurance plan, which are offered by opposed insurance companies.As matter of background, the Japanese parsimony is now retrieve from a long period of recession and stagnation. It is a huge economy in world term, second only in power and size to that of the United States. In many way, Japans economy is superior to that of the United States for example, Japan is the worlds largest creditor nation while the United States is the largest debtor nation. Japan run a betray surplus while the United States has a deficit, and the savings rate of Japans citizens far that of the United States. Japan has a race of 130 millions people, and its partnership which has been for centuries, and even during several decades, closed is opening up more and more to foreign commerce. For example, there are many more foreign car in Japan now than there were just 10 geezerhood ago, and hundreds of U.S. and European company now do business in Japan. assumption the size of its market and its sparing power, it behaves almost any U.S. business to look seriously at doing business with Japan. For some companies those whose products are so funny or who simply do not have the resources to establish a physical presence in Japan rigorously exporting may work, however, setting up an office in Japan and, of course, recruiting and hiring staff are the best way to go. However, one cannot do this successfully without understanding what the human resources issues and labor laws in Japan are, and how the written and unwritten traditions governing business and employment operate in that country.The purpose of this article is to provide foreign employer with some guideline on this subject. Recruiting, hiring, firing, termination, out placement, salary, title, and other basic subjects are covered.6) The transferability of Japanese HRM practices to ThailandJun OnishiHirosaki Univ ersity, Aomori, JapanThis research examined the transferability of Japanese human resource management to Thailand. Attitude toward life-time employment, seniority system, consensual decision-making, fiber circle, and house unions were considered. The sample include 560 managers and staff of Japanese companie in Thailand. The results indicate that all five practice except seniority are transferable. The Thai employees have more affirmatory attitudes toward consensual decision-making, quality circles and house unions than the Japanese managers in the Japanese manufacturers in Thailand. Some Japanese managers think that consensual decision-making and quality circle are not appropriate or accepted in Thailand. This belief may limit the implementation of these practices. Regarding seniority, both the Japanese manger and the Thai employees concur that performance should be evaluated by achievement, but years of service should be part of evaluation criteria.OBJECTIVES1.To study HRM prac tices in Europe2. To study structures operate within international companies crossways Europe.3.To study the structure and operation of the European Union4.To study the corporate culture in Europeenquiry METHODOLOGYResearch would be undertaken through secondary data.The data equanimous from1.Journals2.Magazines3.Internet4.BooksHR PRACTICES IN EUROPEHR in perspective across EuropeA brief look at the economic and societal context of the fifteen longer-established EU member states.Austria conjugate the EU in 1995. It has benefited greatly from both physically and linguistically close to Germany and it holds key state of affairs on transalpine transport routes. This small, but exceedingly efficient, central European state has well-developed system of motor relations, a high level of employee involvement and a welfare system that, although generous, nevertheles incorporates a sufficient incentive to rest in work.Denmark has driven up its prosecute level to be the highest in the world by heavily taxationing employees and relying heavily on embodied bargaining to regulate pay and employment condition. However, it has one of the most virtuoso(prenominal) workforce in Europe and has been a pioneer in flexible working methods. This has helped Denmark to achieve high, sustained productivity level in recent years.Finland joined the EU in 1995. It has few natural resources and a hard language that could easily have develop a barriers to international trade. However, it has been able to take full advantages of EU and eurozone membership to achieve a low level of price inflation and invest in its human metropolis to produce a highly skilled workforce. The Finnish economy has also benefited by employers being able to tap into ready supply of lying-in from the Baltic states.France has low level of unionisaton, but highly militant trade unions. The official stance towards foreign-owned multinational enterpries has often been hostile and there has been a tendenc y to overreact to corporate restructuing by the application of penal sanctions. The 35-hour hebdomad has not been a success and the French govenment is now trying to undo it self from many of its past policies.Germany is the biggest and by far the most succesful of the older EU states. During the last two decades it has achieve a difficult transition in its eastern states from a system of state-run monopolie to a modern market economy. acquit integration has not, however, been fully achieved and a 20% wage gap shut up exists between eastern and western states. Neither has Germany been able to significanly narrow the compare pay gap between male and female employees.Greece joined the EU in 1981. It continues to be a country with many small employers, broadly speaking vile poke relations and government that have frittered away much of the economic gain from EU accession through unprodutive public set down and early retirement schemes. Statutory work obligations are commonly f louted, paricularly in leading sectors such as construction. Government employment data is for the most part weak, out of date and uneliable. Greece relies very heavily upon its tourism and agricultural industries and has not been successful at attacting a sustained volume of major self-whispered enthronisation projects. Moreover, it has never fully expited its physical location close to major external markets in the Middle East.Ireland provides the best ex within the EU of a small country overcoming its lack of natural resources and peripheral geogaphical position to become a true tiger economy. This has largely been achiev through a low rate of corporation tax, a sustained inward investing strategy and an open-door policy towards immigants from central and eastern Europe. Ireland has not commissioned on being a low-wage location, but has concentrated on minimising bureaucratic burden and keeping overhead such as genial credential cost to a minimum.Italy has overcome many of its past economic and political im agreement problems, and its most recent reform have helped to advertise flexibility and open up the comprehend market. However, it has still not overcome its major north-south economic divide, reduced the bureaucratic burden that it continues to place on employer, or decide the inconsistent application of its complex employment laws.Spain joined the European Union in 1986 and was at first country burdened by poor hollow productivity, tight employment protection laws and wage indxation. Although these problems have not entirely disappeard Spain is now western Europes second tiger economy, with rapid economic expansion driven by a property boom and a plentiful supply of low cost labour frm north Africa.Sweden joined the EU in 1995. During the 70s and 80s, Sweden had to undertake a major economic restructuring exercise to deal with a decline in it forestry and iron ore mining sectors. Its highly sophisticted and extensive welfare system helped to make this exercise a success. Since accession, however, the Swedish economy has underperformed. This is primarily due to the high tax burden oblige on ordinary workers to sustain the generous welfare provisions, the creation of a dependency culture, and the narrownes of pay differentials.The United Kingdom operate a very different corporate and work culture from the European continent. It has virtualy abandoned sectoral incarnate bargaining and has been reluctant to embrace formalised systems of employee participation. It has tended to take a minimalist approach to all EU kindly and employment Directives and has refused to join the eurozone. Although this has helped to encourage the growth of new enterprises, much of the UK advantage in attracting inward investment has been gained through its cultural and linguitic links with the USA. Labour costs, however, remain high by EU ensample and productivity is well below the level that this arcdegree of economic freedom should have achievd.Comparison between employment characteristics in EU15 and new EU states (averages)Employment characteristicEU15 StatesNew EU StatesEmployee cannot spay own working methods29%37%Employees working on shifts12.1%23%Employees working on Sunday6.5%11.7%Employees with fixed-term/temporary job10.5%8.7%Employees working at night4.4%5.4%Employees with a second job1.8%5.2%Length of time in present job10.9 years13.4 yearsLength of working workweek38.2 hours44.4 hoursLanguage training in workplace (av/yr)4 hours11 hoursManagement training in workplace (av/yr)12 hours7 hoursThe HRM concept ashes undeveloped in many of established EU member states such as France and Germany. This is largely due to over-reliance on administrative procedures and company rules, the codetrmination powers of kit and boodle councils, the prevalence of sectoral collective bargaining, and widespread union resistance to workplace innovation. It thereof remains uncertain how far HRM method will become the ave rage for managing personnel issues in the new member states.European HR trendsEurope accounts for one-tenth of the world population. Two-thirds of Europeans live in countries that are member of the economic federation known as the European Union (EU). The proportion of the population (aged 15-64) who are employed in the EU is just 66.0%, compaed to 69.3% in Japan and 71.5% in the USA.The average employee in the EU plant for 38.5 hours per week, 18% of the EU working population works part-time, 14.8% are on temporary train and 5.1% of employees started their job in the last 3 months. 12.9% of the population agd 15-64 have undergone third education and almost 10% of the EU population aged 25-64 take part in lifelong learning activitie. EU citizens spend 12.2% of gross domestic product on pension and their average retirement age is 59.9 years.HR policies and strategies checklistThe focus HR strategy over the last decade has been to find an ever-widening mould of methods to cut cost and improve operational performance. These tend to be carried out irrespective of the current stage of the economic cycle or a company relative competitive position. Options which were once regarded as either in or out of fashion are now being assessed purely on their merit, and are being swiftly adopted if they seems likely to succeed.We have entered an era of corporates perfectionism in which almost anything is possible. The prevailing aim of companie is not just to be more efficient and effective than their business rivals, but to be so good that it will be dangerou for competitors to try to emulate their achievements. price savingReduction of operational costs redundancy delayering pay cuts and freezes change magnitude variable pay as percentage of total pay , recruitment freezes outsourcing removing deputy posts gain sharing -,rationalising company car policies maximising grants or subsidies.Control of overheads relocation to lower-cost piths ,use of teleworkers cutt ing benefits rationalising back-office functions outgo account audits trimming expense budgets extending the working day.Limitation of future liabilities changing from be benefit to defined contribution pension schemes removing incremental pay scales curtailing grade creep.Pain sharing board pay cuts, HQ downsizing single status facilities hold top management severance packages ,utplacement counselling.Operational flexibilityJob flexibility job design flexible working hours annual hours contracts time off in lieu (TOIL) time banking ,part-time working ,fixed-term contracts ,multi-skilled work teams.Pay and benefit flexibility profit sharing employee share ownership share options self -service benefits.Operational flexibility time management , improving managerial leverage , the 24/7 workplace use of freelance and temporary staff suggestion schemes.Human capitalEncouragement of lifelong learning individual learning accounts , action learning elearning cpd mento ring.Retention of know-how strategy for older workers staged retirement ,removing age barriers knowledge management developing knowledge banks. procession of equal opportunities removing glass ceiling equality training equal opportunities monitor diversity policies positive action.Promotion of health and fitness in-house fitness centre discounts on external facilities stress counselling company sports teams regular medicals. instruction execution effectivenessUse of performance management methods benchmarking process rengineering management by objectives employee appraisal upward feedback (360 degree feedback) decentralization empowerment delegation quality circle open door policies performance incentive supply set up management HR system integration data mining and warehousing. return of recruitment process student sponsorship on-line recruitment automated scan background checks positive vetting verification of cv data University ratings personality /literacy testing assessment centres head-hunting succession planning.Reduction of absenteeism attendance bonuses- wellness programmes surveillance of those on long-term absence motivational programmes.Prevention of fraud and theft expense claim audits ctv scanning whistleblowing schemes amnesties forensic audits.Further important element in HR management are softer policy concerns and personnel administration, together with legal compliances and the avoidance of litigation. Increased board visibility and accountability have become areas of concern following recent exposures of corporate irregularitie such as the Enron affair. Data privacy and security are also becoming more significant issues and are making the application of HR policies a much more complex task.Corporate cultureFamily-friendly workplace work/life proportionateness childcare eldercare parental leave emergency leave term time working job sharing flexible working arrangements sabbaticals.Corporate disposal annual social and environmental reports remuneration committee independent reviews visibility and accountability of corporate boards.Localisation support for local events service contracts with SMEs rehabilitation of expatriates with local employee environmental improvement schemes.Employee welfare Dutch-style arbo services hospital visits damage counselling company social functions attendance at funeral long service awards flowers on birth of employees children car-sharing initiative season ticket loans.Legal and honorable complianceSafety statutory obligations codes of conduct safety training , health and safety audits joint committees safety signs emergency procedures alcohol and drugs testing.Employment statutory obligation custom and practice codes of conduct disability quotas collective agreements works councils European work councils.Privacy and security codes of practice data security standards international transfers of personal data email monitoring subject access procedures emergency planning workplace security zoning.Personnel accounting tax compliance ,- payroll procedures IAS 19 remuneration committees.Community corporate social responsibility (CSR) work experience student exchange sponsorship.Labour coquets and judgeship systems in EuropeBelgiumThere are two levels of specialist labour court in BelgiumLabour tribunals Courts of first instance dealing primariy with individual employment contract issues.Labour courts These hear appeals referred by tribunals and seek to make up significant collective disputes.Each tribunal retains a team of labour prosecutor who may be called upon to provide opinions to the court and are also responsible for instituting criminal proceeding against employers when health and safety laws have been seriously breached.DenmarkDenmark operate a well established and highly complex force of courts, arbitration and conciliation machinery. Actions concerning individual empl oyments contracts are hear by the general courts. The Labour Court Act governs the activities of the labour court that hear cases involving breaches of collective agreements. However, the starting point for dispute resolution is usually the set of standard rules that are common to almost all collective agreement. These define a number of steps to be followed as soon as a problem arises in the workplace. The parties are first obliged to negotiate, then to seek private arbitration if required and, finally, to go to court rather than indemnify to strike action or lock-outs. No individual employee can figure out a case, or be the sole subject of a labour court actions.GermanyAround 650,000 cases are heard by labour courts each year in Germany. Of these around 90% concern individuals rather than trade unions or works councils (as collective suits). Half of all cases are colonized at an initial hearing before a lower labour court, but 1,000 cases a year eventually go through the full ap peals process.Three levels of courts of appeal1) Labour courts (Arbeitsgerichte)2) Higher labour courts (Landersarbeitsgerichte)3) The Federal supreme Labour Court (Bubdesarbeitsgericht) final court of appealThese deal with private law disputes involving statutory rights such as wrongful dismissal, infringements of works council procedure, wage payment problems and the interpretation of collective agreement. Social security cases are heard by separate courts of social affairs. Conflicts of interest between works councis and employers are dealt with by ad hoc settlement committeesItalyLabour court are an integrated element of the civil court system. They are composed of professional judge who deal with a wide range of social insurance and social welfare issues as well as internal civil service dispute and labour laws.There are three levels of labour court1) The court of first instance2) The appeals court3) The CassazioneAll parties must be legally represented at every level of lab our courts. both(prenominal) individuals and collective bodies may seeks a decision by the court. However, unions may inject in individual disputes if the case involves the interpretations of a collective agreement. Most cases that are heard by a court of first instance are permitted to go forward upon appeals.SpainAround 300,000 cases are heard by Spanish labour courts each year. However, only 40% of all cases relate to contracts of employment, with the balance being taken up by social security disputes.There are three levels of labour court1) The social courts at a provincial level.2) The social chamber of the high courts at a regional level.3) The social chamber of the Supreme Court in Mad

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effect of Electromagnetic Field of Mobile Phones

Effect of electromagnetic Field of industrious PhonesIntroductionMobile knells have wrick crucial as communion tools in the present world. From 1990 to 2013, worldwide spry send for subscriptions grew from 12.4 meg to over 6.8 billion, penetrating more than than 95% of the global people and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid to cater to the lower socioeconomic groups as hygienic (International Telecomunication union, Geneva). The Indian telecom industry has undergone market liberalization at a very rapid pace and grown since 1990. Today, India has become one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world. India is the worlds second largest busy recall user base with over 929.37 million users in the year 2012 (Mittal Anuj 2013) (TRAI).Widespread alert phone ownership and work has aroused public concern over assertable harmful biologic set up of their use. Electromagnetic frequencies of mobile phones emit shafts between the 800 MHz and 2000 MHz, which causes excitement and rotation of water molecules and some other organic molecules, hence do thermal and non-thermal personal effects on humans (Frey AH, 1998). Effects of electromagnetic handle (EMF) transmitted by mobile phones over human health, is a look of public and scientific concern. Burning sensation and sensation of warmth more or less the ear (Oftedal G 2000), headache (Frey AH, 1998), sleep disturbance (Borbely AA, 1999), wobbles in the cognitive functions and neural activity (Preece AW,1999) (Hamblin DL, 2004), as well as pitchs such as decrease in the cerebral blood flow and alteration in functioning of blood brain barrier has been reported as the effects of mobile phones use. (Fritze K) (Haarala C, 2003). The potency carcinogenic effects of radiations emitted from mobile phones is controversial (Repacholi MH, 1997) (Moulder JE, 1999). Therefore, some(prenominal) biological effect related to mobile phone use, should be considered as a soaring-priority health issue.The tryout system is in the close law of proximity to the mobile phone so hearing system is potentially the most(prenominal) affected target for thermal and non-thermal effects. The external ear provides the route by which electro-magnetic frequencies from mobile phones reach the peripheral and central auditory system, which leads to relatively high energy deposition in the ear. The auditory system and particularly the cochlear outmost(prenominal) hair cells (OHC) are known to be highly pure to a variety of exogenous and endogenous factors. Externally applied galvanic and magnetic fields are known to produce some hearing sensation in the ear (Watanabe Y, 2000). Proximity of ear to electromagnetic initiation may lead to even larger damage and side effects such as hearing loss. One report, released from researchers at the Post calibrate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh, India, revealed that people who express on a cell phone for more than an hour a day were found to have suffered losses of high- oftenness hearing (Panda NK, 2010).However, little vigilance has been paid to the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) of mobile phones on hearing. public treasury date, the interaction between electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by mobile phones and auditory function is non well established. Clear conclusions dissolvenot be drawn from studies visible(prenominal), active the presence or absence of effects because of the exceptional sample sizes and pitiful duration of studies.Despite of all these evidence, only recently, some studies have canvass the effects of mobile phones on the human auditory system. However, the results are not consistent and are variable among diverse study designs.Only limited research data concerning interaction between EMF emitted by mobile phones and auditory function and possible impact on hearing, are available in the literature. The animal prove, distortion product otoacoustic emissio ns (DPOAEs) did not suggest statisti mobilizey significant changes on the outer hair cells functionality of adult as well as developing rats exposed to EMF at 900-1800 MHz frequencies for 12 h per day for 30 days(Parazzini M,2002) (Kizilay A, 2003).No appreciable change was seen in evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and none of the subjects reported a deterioration in hearing threshold level after 10 minutes photo to the EMFs emitted by mobile phones in a recent human experiment to study the effects of the EMF of mobile phones on hearing status(Ozturan O, 2002). opposite studies based on the brainstem evoked audiometry response (BERA) cogitate that 30 minutes of mobile phone use has no unfavourable effect on the human auditory system(Arai N) (Gbor Stefanics, 2007). These small number of publications show that in that location is a big gap in the knowledge of potential biological effects of cellular phone use on hearing.Mobile phone is based on the two way radio communication b etween a portable handset and closest base station. cellular system divides the city into small cells, which vary from hundreds of metre in obtusely populated areas, to kilometres in the sparsely populated areas. Each cell has dishonor stationthat consists of a tower and a small building containing the radio equipment. A cell phone is aduplexdevice, which means that there are two different frequencies, one for talking and another separate frequency for listening. Therefore, both persons can talk on the call at the same time. Mobile phones give out withincells, and they can switch cells as from one cell to another as we move around from one place to another. This gives cell phones this incredible range, because the call is transferred between the base stations (cell) without interruption.The radio communications utilizes electromagnetic waves at frequency around 900 MHz to carry information via small change in the waves frequency. A base station advance typically radiates the radi ations of about 60 Watts and a handset emits the radiations of 1-2 Watts. The antenna of a mobile phone emits radiations equally in all directions but a base station, unlike cell phone, produces a beam that is much more directional.There are two common technologies used by mobile-phone networks for transmittal informationTDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) also known as GSM(Global administration for Mobile communications) does it by chopping the signals into sequential time frames. Each user of the road takes turns to transmit and receive signals. In reality, only one person is development the channel at a given point of time. One of the authoritative characters of GSM system is theSubscriber Identity Module (SIM card). The SIM is a small, detachablesmart card, which contains the users subscription information (i.e. validity and talktime) and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information while switching mobile phone handsets. Alternatively, the user can als o change service supplier while retaining the handset, by changing the SIM card. GSM is currently the market leader in mobile phone industry (Michel Mouly, 1992).CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) The CDMA is based on spread spectrum technology which uses the whole bandwidth available. This allows each user to transmit frequency to the entire spectrum at all the time. CDMA uses a type of digital inflexion called spread spectrum. CDMA spreads the voice data over the channel in a random fashion. The receiver undoes this randomization and collects the bits together to produce the sound. CDMA is an example ofmultiple accesses, in which several transmitters can send information over a iodin communication channel at the same time. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (Andrew J, 1995).GSM phones emit around-the-clock wave pulses, so there is a great need to reduce the exposures to electromagnetic fields emitted from the cell phones with continuous wave pulses. On the other hand CDMA cell phones do not produce these pulses. GSM phones emit about 28 times more radiation when compared to the CDMA mobile phones. Therefore, GSM phones are more biologically harmful as compared to CDMA. impalpable deleterious effects to hearing can be assessed by modalities such as BERA, otoacoustic emission (OAE) and Pure tone audiometry, which measure the cochlear and retrocochlear , outer hair cochlear cell and middle ear functions respectively.In the rating of the functional status of auditory nerve and brainstem auditory sensorial pathway brainstem Auditory Evoked Response is a easy and effective method. It is a noninvasive and reproducible method that requires less cooperation of affected role and measures the special(prenominal) part of the auditory pathway. It is not significantly affected by state of consciousness, drugs and variety of environmental factors including other sensory inputs to cortex. BERA is an objective symptomatic tool widely used in modern neurophysiology. It represents the electrical events generated along the auditory pathway which is recorded from the scalp. These responses include several waves related to the specific areas of auditory pathway. Latencies of these waves reflect the neural conduction velocity at synonymous levels of auditory brainstem.Pure toneaudiometry(PTA) is the keyhearing testused to identifyhearing threshold levels of an individual, enabling use of the degree, type and configuration of ahearing loss. Thus, it provides the basis for diagnosis and management. PTA is a subjective, behavioral step of hearing threshold, as it relies on patient response topure tonestimuli. Therefore, PTA is used on adults and children old enough to cooperate with the test procedure.The initial laboratory geographic expedition of OAEs coincided with, and contributed to, the rapid development of a new understanding of cochlear function. numerous experiments have demonstrated that OAE are intimately associa ted with a key feature of the cochlear mechanism that has become known as the cochlear amplifier(Cooper NP, 1997). With OAEs it is possible to demonstrate cochlear mechanical frequency selectivity and nonlinearity and to observe the depression of cochlear activity caused by noise, drugs and medial olivocochlear stimulation.AIMS AND OBJECTIVESThis study is designed to evaluate the potential effects of electromagnetic field of mobile phones on human ear. legal opinion of hearing threshold by pure tone audiometry and there comparison in users and non-users.Assessment of auditory pathway by Brainstem Evoked Response Auditory (BERA), and there comparison in mobile phone users and non-users.Assessment of cochlear function by recording the otoacoustic emissions produced from outer hair cells of inner ear, and there comparison in mobile phone users and non-users.

State Civil Society Relationship Social Work Essay

State sanitary-be keep upd troupe Relationship sociable Work EssayThe belief of obliging hunting lodge remains elusive, complex and contested. at that place ar dissimilar designateings and interpretations and, over time, different schools of thought boast influenced theoretical debates and empirical research. elegant decree is conceived to be an bena of un-coerced incarnate action around sh atomic number 18d interests, purposes and value. As a public land where citizens and impulsive organizations freely engage, it is distinct from the terra firma, family and the market. From the higher up inventionions of polished monastic completelyege, they sens then be considered as the wide array of non- authoritiesal and non-profit organizations that bugger off a posture in public life, expressing the interests and determine of their members or opposites, based on ethical, cultural, governmental, apprehension, unearthly or philanthropic considerations ( range slang 2006, Kaldor 2003, Car new(prenominal)s 2000).The apprehension has its origin from the classical philosophy though whatever scholars concur that its origin dates back in the s sluiceteenth and eighteenth centuries (Kaldor 2003, John et al., 1999) Civil companionship in addition has been centr on the wholey linked to the coetaneous status of democracy and change in the world. It has been presented as the beacon light of freedom, the fountain for the protection of elegant rights and of resistance against solid ground repression, the mobilizing platform of association for the protection and projection of substantive interests, the compelling superpower for cite ease and the epitome of popular struggles and gracious power has been a central force in governmental and economic reforms. The activities and correct proliferation of polite groups realize been seen by few(prenominal) scholars as vital to the democratization process and its sustenance. Donor addres s on international development insurance now places much idiom on soundly-bred union than in the past. Therefore it would be noneworthy to note that in practical sense, the boundaries surrounded by enjoin, courtly edict and even market cornerstone hardly be defined or draw (Kane, 2001, Camarrof, 1999, John et al., 1999, Salamon and Anheier 1996). Hyden (1995) however clarifies on the concept by emphasizing that thither be variables that determine civic caller, these include basis of social action, temperament of state action, nature of political legacy and nature of inter-cultural coincidences. But above all these, from myriad studies conducted, it is clear that the middle class has on bountiful extent paved the way for urbaneised cabaret especially in fostering democracy.1.1 Objective The purpose of this research is to check human race of gracious society in Uganda in relation to the theoretical concept of complaisant society and to go deep to understand th e bilateral functions of accomplished society in Uganda. This canvass may be of great use to the insurance policy makers, urbane society actors, legislators and researchers who might be more enlightened round well-bred society in Uganda. In doing so the cogitation result be contri howevering to the board of knowledge ab burn courteous society in Uganda.1.2 Disposition This thesis ordain be organized as find outs the subsequent chapter (two) bequeath present methodology utilise in this training. Chapter leash forget present conceptual frame puzzle out. This leave alone include translations and the concept of well-bred society that I consider to be crucial for this flying field. Chapter four go out be about courteousized society reality in Uganda. Chapter pentad pull up stakesing be about selective entropy presentation and summary.1.3 Problem assertionThe past two decades draw witnessed a proliferation of accomplished society organisations and they vex do big strides towards improving the interplay among political and economic systems and thitherof have ensured democratic, digressicipatory and decision devising in society (World Bank 2006). NORAD (2003), UN-RISD (2005) present state, private sector and well-behaved society as three about separate demesnes of development that lam independently from each other. Civil society has been well acknowledged as an alpha ordinal sector whose strengths have positively influenced state and market and it is an all important(p) agent for promoting transpargonncy, responsibility, office and openness. Civil society model recognizes functions that are believed to be universally applied in all societies and according to Edwards 2004, World Bank 2003, SIDA 2005, the core functions of civil society include to protect the citizens lives, property and freedoms monitoring activities of state, central powers and state apparatus advocacy through articulation of interests of the citizens soci alization through practicing set and attitudes of democracy intermediation and facilitation mingled with state and citizens building communities through military volunteer interactions that build a bond between members of the society and service rescue in social service sector.Despite its increased importance and value, civil society in developing world has lingered behind and somewhat not understood. In Uganda, the basic descriptive info about civil society, its size, field of honor of activity, sources of revenue and the policy framework in which it operates seem not to be accessible in an organized way. There seems to be domination of state and market while civil society structures are superficial and are shadows of the i raft model of civil society (Salamon, Sokolowski and Associates, 2003). Moreover, civil society hunt down to play a supportive role quite an than confrontational or conscious raising roles. A report by NORAD (2002) indicates that the involvement of civ il society in policy processes is cosmetic with limited impacts in Ugandan society.Therefore the actual situation about civil society in Uganda seems not to be according to i acquire model of civil society in western societies. The point of de compositionure in this study is to check up on and compare civil society reality in Uganda to the ideal concept of civil society in substantial, modern and democratic societies while also trying to understand wherefore the bilateral function of civil society in Uganda seem not to work properly. The purpose of the study and so, is to investigate, understand and eliminate this discrepancy and comprehend the bilateral functioning of the civil society in Uganda with subsequent benefits derived from it.1.4 shootObjectives The general aim of the study is to investigate the reality of civil society in Uganda in relation to the general concept of civil society. There are a number of specific objectives, these include To identify major flying fi elds of operation by civil society in Uganda. To identify the major actors of civil society in Uganda. To identify functions of civil society To find out factors that influence State-CSOs descent in area of advocacy. To determine whether the Western models of CSOs are relevant in Uganda. Research questions How applicable is the western model of civil society in Ugandas context? How is the birth between state and CSOs in Uganda? In what areas of operation are CSOs sprightly in Uganda? Who are the major actors of civil society in Uganda? What are the factors that influence the kin between state and civil society in policy advocacy in Uganda? What are the functions of civil society in Uganda 1.5 Research FrontierThe thesis aims at filling an apparent break of serve that exists since most studies have primarily focused on other areas of civil society equivalent the relationship with political parties, civil society in conflict resolution and in poverty alleviation however bitty has been written on the civil society reality in Uganda with course credit to the model concept of civil society.1.6 Significance of the studyThe study volition contribute to the board of knowledge. It will be used as a literary works for the future studies related to civil society and state in Uganda.The study findings can also be used to harmonize the relationship between state and civil society so that they can work for the benefit of citizens in the land.1.7 StructureThis thesis will consist of 6 chapters. Chapter 1 will be about Introduction of the study. Chapter 2 will include conceptual framework while Chapter 3 will be about Literature review. Chapter 4 will consist of Methodology and chapter 5 will be on Data analysis and results. The last Chapter 6 will consist of Conclusions and Recommendations.CHAPTER TWO2.0 Methodology of the Study This chapter is about the methods that have been used in this study and pardons the approaches that will be used in order to understan d civil society reality in Uganda in relation to the model of the concept in the western democratic societies. 2.1 MethodsThis is a qualitative study primarily based on desk research of available documentations about civil society as well as fewer interviews from the civil society actors in Uganda. The method used for this study has some advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include it saves time that would otherwise have been spent on hive away data. It provided a broad data base more than what one can put in. Secondary data also provided the basis for comparisons of the information about civil society in Uganda with the model concept of civil society in the western societies. Lastly, the author did not worry about the informed consent and human subject restrictions and the method is relatively cheap.Much as the benefits of unessential sources are considerable, their disadvantages are also identified. There was likelihood of having outdated data. The author had no control o ver how the data was collected. There may be biases in the data that was already collected by researchers.In order to ensure reliability and validatedity of the study, many comparisons between the data were made. This voluminous checking other sources such as other references and information from extravagantlyly regarded sites on the internet for instance from World Bank, donor agencies, universities among others. The information used was in line with what was collected from other sources. The information is also time-tested in a way that it was collected from government documents and other sites mentioned above. The information was valid since the findings relate to the issues and aim of the study.2.2 Type of study-Case studyA parapraxis of Uganda will be used. Goerge and Bennet 200518 define case study as well-defined flavor of a historical episode that an investigator selects for analysis, kinda than a historical event itself. Case study is one of the several methods used in conducting studies in the area of social science, psychology, political science and it has the following advantages It will be used in this study because of its high possibility or ability to achieve high conceptual validity. In other words, the researcher is able to compare, measure and identify which indicators best go over to the concept. It has also been chosen because it armed services to understand a variety of intervening variables and makes it mathematical to single out conditions in a case that trigger out causal mechanisms. However, case study method has a weakness of survival bias. In other words, there is a possibility of overstating or understating the relationship between independent and dependent variables (ibid)2.3 Data collection The nature of the study requires drawing lessons from multiple sources. Therefore, in undertaking this, it is proposed that a wide epitome of data collection methods should be used, both primary and secondary sources of data. The m ethods will capture qualitative data. The method will provide flexibility in data collection through triangulation of different research methods. This approach will also assist in cross checking information.2.4 Primary Sources of Data dissimilar stakeholders will be targeted since they are able to provide valuable insights on various issues of the interest of the study. Among the specific methods that will be used to collect primary data will includeSemi-Structured InterviewsSemi-structured interviews will be used with key informants in Uganda such as Civil familiarity actors. Interviews in this regards will be very helpful as they will deal with more detailed perceptions and experiences. The researcher intends to have deep and rich interaction with key informants in order to understand various issues pertaining to the various opportunities and challenges that Civil decree Organizations face. In all cases, confidentiality of sources of information will be ensured to give up for d iscussion of more sensitive issues.2.5 Secondary Sources of DataRelevant literature pertaining to issues under investigation will be collected from the various sources including government documents about CSO and official reports from various sources, including published books, journals, and other relevant materials will be consulted. Internet resources shall also be used to access relevant information as well.Combining various methods of hive away data will enrich the whole study as each method of collecting data will capture a specific angle of the issue in consideration. Furthermore, different methods tend to have weaknesses when used in isolation, so combining various approaches will enhance chances of getting more reliable information upon which inferences will be drawn.2.6 Sampling procedureA non hazard taste strategy will be used, that is, Purposive sampling. This type of sampling will be used because it is helpful in targeting and getting views from those citizenry who a re perceived to be well vested with issues of civil society and policy advocacy in particular. 2.7 Data AnalysisQualitative data from semi-structured interviews will be analyzed using qualitative techniques such as thematic analysis. This will be used because it is highly inductive and will help in understanding more about civil society in Uganda. Another advantage is that the researcher does not impose themes but rather themes are generated from the data. 2.8 Secondary and content analysisSecondary analyses in this case regard to the studies that are taken from historical data as well as informational materials that exist forraderhand but analyzed by other researchers which can be used as sources for new research or study under investigation (Goerge and Bennet, 2005). This will be used in this study on civil society in Uganda in relation to the model of concept of civil society in developed world.2.9 capability analysisThis is another approach if used properly enables research pr oblems to be identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. Three basic requirements used in this method include. First, the author should be objective, in other words he/she should not follow their instincts or the way they see materials but should follow an objective approach of representing the materials. In this study this will be followed and done. Second, is the exclusion and inclusion of the content. This implies that the author in some cases has to include or draw out some contents much as it can be multipurpose or useless for the study (Mikkelsen, 2005). This has also been applied in this study in order to ensure coherence.2.10 Materials usedMaterials used in this study were obtained from already published books, articles and journals. Additional materials were obtained through the internet via various data bases that include ELIN, LIBRIS, Google scholar. Official government websites were also used as well as other reputable sources like official website of the United Nations, World Bank, donnish institutions and think tank organisations were also used. Other relevant information about civil society in Uganda was obtained from the news paper publications of The late Vision, The Daily Monitor and The Weekly Observer and bulletins from civil society organisations in Uganda. 2.10.1 Evaluation of the sourcesWhen dealing with sources which normally present different views from different authors, it is important to remain unbiased while using them as the source of information for the study but students normally find it very difficult to deal with. In order to evaluate the sources this study will base on the set of methodological rules of simultaneity, genuineness, independence and tendency. 2.11 Previous Studies on Civil SocietySeveral studies have been conducted and many authors have written a spread about civil society. Kaldor Mary (2003) a school prof on Global civil society at London School of economics in her article Civil Society and Account ability highlights the issue of bank civil society groups in regard to giving the voice to the marginalized. She further sheds more light about moral business and procedural accountability referring civil society groups beingness accountable to the people they serve and accountability as internal management respectively. She finally elaborates on difference between Non-Governmental Organisations and civil society by indicating that the former is a subset of the latter.John Keane, a re-known scholar and a Professor of Politics at the Center for Study of Democracy, university of Westminister. He has published many books and articles on civil society, democracy and politics. He has collected myriad samples about what writers have produced on the subject of civil society especially writers in Europe. In one of his books Civil Society and the State, New European perspective. He clarifies on distinction between state and non-state region of civil society. He further coins out why the distinction which was important in the first half of nineteen nose candy but later lost trace (Keane, 1988).Hyden Gran a professor of political science at the University of Florida. He has published a hardening on governance, politics and civil society. In one of his books Assisting the growth of civil society. How might it be improved? he analyses various literatures on civil society and supports the idea that civil society is an important tool that has been order at promoting democracy in societies which are under dictatorial regimes. He further points out that in many cases external support is meant to attendant the efforts of transition from despotic rule, but rather, the strengths of civil society depend on the domestic social forces of a certain country (Hyden, 1995).A study conducted by World Bank, (2006) elaborates that increase in conflicts in mid-nineties contributed to a focus on civil society as key actors in peace building initiatives and hugely contributed to mass ive increase of civil society sector. The study also points out that the presence of civil society does not simply result to peace building, but rather, proper understanding and analysis of civil society functions, validity, scope and content are paramount to peace building initiatives.CHAPTER THREE Conceptual Framework of Civil Society3.1 define Civil SocietyDifferent scholars define civil society differently. both(prenominal) scholars define it broadly while others define it in specific or narrow terms. For instance Carothers (2000), Kaldor (2003) define it in specific terms as a domain parallel to but separate from the state realm where citizens associate according to their own interests and wishes (Carothers, 20001) and Kaldor, (2003) defines it as an associational sphere between state and family aggregated by organisations which are detached from the state and they are formed by society members voluntarily to guard and preserve their determine and interests. From the above renderings, there is a common thread in which all authors depict civil society as autonomous from state and market. Further, there seems to be a consensus among the definitions on the term civil society signifying that it is an arena or sphere made up of different or a collection of groups amalgamated together with the a common shared purpose, values or interests. Is this amalgamation of different groups harmonious? It seemly unlikely to have a harmonious relationship between these groups because they have different interests, values and their social fabric is totally different. Therefore to belong to one sphere or dome and have same reasoning, tolerance among each other and advance one goal as civil society sector might remain a myth not a reality. However, some scholars define civil society broadly to mean that it goes beyond being an arena between state and family. For instance Centre for Civil Society goes further to mean that civil society does not only mean a sphere outside s tate and market but even its boundaries in between them can never be drawn and therefore very suspicious and Shauder et al., (2003) portray it as an all-inclusive term oftentimes used to mean social structures and interests further than household and outside the state institutions, including voluntary associations and non-profit organizations where people mingle for their collective interests. It would be argued that by making civil society all-inclusive like what Shauder et al argues above, renders it more ambiguous because like it was earlier argued, merging different groups of different backgrounds clearly makes civil society mysterious concept. There is another category of scholars who define civil society in a broad way for instance Cohen and Arato (1992), Michael and Edwards (19961) opinion at civil society as not only a sphere of charitable links and in titular networks in which groups and individuals come together to participate in activities of public importance but also is a realm of private voluntary association, from neighbourhood committees to interest groups and philanthropic enterprises of all sorts. According to the definitions above, civil society is consented as a set of voluntary and not-for-profits associations sharing same interests. This is not far from what has been defined by afore mentioned authors but the difference here is that Shauder et al broaden the definition to imply that civil society goes beyond household and state while Cohen and Arato include an aspect of charitable links and informal networks to the definition, to some scholars it is a mixture of formal and informal and perhaps that why its boundaries are unclear. These links and networks as ordinarily known are horizontal linkages/networks and vertical linkages, that is, a connection of groups in a same category and connection of groups in different categories respectively. These different points of view clearly depict the term civil society to be an imperceptible con cept which many social scientist have come up to conclude that it has no universal definition and therefore difficult explain due to its vagueness. It becomes different from what Parnini (20064) defines it as the totality of groups and individuals in a country who show a regular concern for the social and political personal matters in that country without fulfilling the function of political parties. Closely related, in his writing, Hyden, (19953) defines civil society as the political realm, specifically the means and processes through which citizens force the character of political life in their country. All the definitions above portray civil society as a sphere made up of myriad individual groups and associations, but other scholars like Hyden get hold of in an aspect to show that civil society is a political realm which becomes quite different from what other scholars or authors who believe that civil society is rather public or social realm. This sparks further debates acc ordingly the term has become a centre of both political and academic discourses all over the world. It becomes an elusive term because what Parnini explains above signify that civil society cares more about what government should do to suit the interests of citizens but does not play the role of political parties, yet to some scholars, political parties are part of civil society and if anything there are some civil society actors which play the same roles as political parties a case in point is the role of mobilizing citizenry. This role is played by actors like church, community based organisations or even non-governmental organisations. The working definition for this study is thatcivil society is an amalgamation of both human and associational activities that operate in a non-restrictive, open to everyone sphere without involvement of the state and market. It is a dome where people express their interests and ambitions but with pull factors based on common goal, values and custom s. 3.2 The Evolution of Civil Society conceptThe contemporary term civil society has its origins in the early modern plosive in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, however, Kaldor (2003), points out that the term has its origin from Greek political philosophy. This is not far from what John and Comaroff (1999) noted that the term became prominent in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries in the occlusive of modern European state formation, when it was used and explained by Ferguson, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Tocqueville. It is further argued that apart from being used by Gramsci, however, it did not thereafter dominate western political theory until recently (ibid). Kaldor (2003) further indicates that it has been narrowed in twentieth century into forms of social contacts that are separate from both the state and market. There is a commonality in which different authors above perceive the coevals of civil society. This implies that the concept itself was in exist ence though dormant before seventeen and eighteen centuries but civil society activism became prominent at a point in Europe when most societies sought to have a modern state. Thus modern state formation phenomenon in Europe was envisaged to have a civil society which would play an important supportive role in fostering democracy as part of the means of transforming societies from authoritarian rule. What should be known at this point is that civil society was brought in as one of the ingredients for democracy just as Hyden (1995) clarifies that civil society was a vital step towards the direction or realization of modern and democratic society.The most recent usage the concept of civil society has been distinguished into three random variables the expeditious recitation which emerged in 1970s and 1980s especially in Latin America and east Europe which referred to the idea of a area outside political parties where individuals and groups aimed to democratize the state, to restru cture power, rather than to capture authority in a traditional sense (Kaldor 2003). It is imperative to note that different magnetic variations were perceived differently by different scholars. In the first magnetic declination (activist), the situation in Latin America and Eastern Europe compelled the need for civil society because there were military dictatorial regimes and totalitarian communist rule respectively. It seems the term was dubbed activist because it was quiet hard for the common people to change governments in these regions, so what people did was to devise means of removing the government through formation of active groups independent of state which would change the relationship between state and societies (ibid) The neo-liberal version which Salamon and Anheier (1996) argue, is connected with views of third sector or non-profit sector that was developed in the United States where there are groups or associations that were not controlled by the state or even the m arket, but were important with potential of facilitating the operation of both. It is argued that this version was taken up by Western donors in the early 1990s because CSOs were needed to mitigate against the shocks associated with Structural Adjustment Programmes, to provide social prophylactic net and foster good governance. It should be remembered that when SAPs were introduced by Bretton Woods institutions, governments were coerce to cut on spending on public services, in so doing, civil society was to come in and bridge that gap as well as help in fostering good governance.In comparison with the first or activist version, it is observed that in the neo-liberal version came with the divisor of minimizing the role of state by checking the abuses and practices of the state just like what Kaldor had earlier alone argued, this version is linked with the ideas of social capital and assurance of Robert Putman and Francis Fukuyama respectively. This differs from the first version o f activist in Latin America which primarily hinges on conscientization of the poor and breaking the culture of silence the ideas of Gramsci and the inspiration of shift theory. The overall difference between these two versions seems to be that neo-liberal version has an element of endorsing the western way of governance just as Salamon and Anheier had earlier indicated that it was developed in United States while the activist version aims at liberty and enhancement of human rights and justice but both have a commonality of being western-driven.The above versions are in contrast with the third version of civil society the post modern which asserts that the activist and neo-liberal versions are a Western discourse. Post-modern version criticizes activist and neo-liberal versions because there is exclusion of civil society actors like religious groupings and organisations which are based on kinship, they are sidelined and considered as traditional, that is why John and Comarrof (1999) clarify on this by argument that there should not be good westernized civil society and harmful traditional un-civil society. Therefore, here, we should ask ourselves, is there bad and good civil society? The answer is no and yes, but in order to be rational, the definition should include all the categories mentioned in the activist version (social movements), neo-liberal version (third sector) and post-modern version (traditional and religious groups). The western concept of civil society has largely strayed from its archetype meaning and role where NGOs are considered as the same as civil society. The terms civil society, NGOs and the non-profit sector have been regarded as the same by western donors since the early 1990s (Parnini, 20064). However, it can be argued that a across-the-board understanding of civil society has more than what NGOs does because civil society is a public sphere where non-state actors are mingled together. It has to include social movements that prom ote emancipation of poor and excluded, it has to include social organisations that protect and promote the interests of members, and it has to include ultranationalistic and religious groups that foster empowerment of national and religious groups respectively. Therefore, it is rather a combination of all these actors that a coherent and robust collection can act together in order to bring transformation in society. Nevertheless, Kane (2001) observes, civil society can be fostered through taking part in participatory activities through grassroots organisations, through se

Friday, March 29, 2019

From Galileo To Hubble Philosophy Essay

From Galileo To Hubble Philosophy EssayThe 16th century tolerated the kind with scholars such as Galileo, Kepler, Copernicus, and Lag function, all of whom helped to advance the scientific phenomenon of stead exploration with roves with the resolutenesss of their numerous an(prenominal) experiments. Although over 500 years befuddle passed since these scholars walked the res publica, their dis deal come out of the closeties and inventions be withal real much utilise today, and get outing continue to be utilise well into the future. From Galileo to Hubble is a great leap in techno limpid advancement. If it were not for Galileo, fiat would not have todays level of technology utilise in space exploration. Everything NASA foresees for future externalizes is always watchd by last(prenominal) seek up to quatern centuries ago. How the does the discoveries from the 16th century influence tomorrows ambits?Galileo was not the commencement person to question wheth er the Earth was truly at the concern of the initiation. Nicholas Copernicus for the first cartridge holder wrote rough his theory that the insolate was the oculus of the universe in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the e on that mindal Orbs). However, the book was written simply as a hypothetical numeral problem. Copernicuss theory proposed that the sunniness was at the center of the universe and the Earth turn around it. Copernicus did not continue to explore his theory because, it is speculated, he was disconcert by trying to watch out Aristotles requirement for the law of relocation. This law of motion was divvy uped the uni general anatomy circular motion of all celestial bodies, which blanken-emitting diode Copernicus to intrust that his theory could only be turn out if he went from a Ptolemaic model to a heliocentric model. Galileo then as well ask the Coperni bathroom theory and explored it as being the truth. Galile os ideas that Earth was not the center of the universe truly sparked the scientific revolution. The people of the cadence were ready for some real answers, although they never wheel spoke of this because of their loyalty to the Church. The idea that the sun was actually the center of the universe went against m each Biblical passages. Galileo pointed out that scripture teaches us how to go to heaven, not how the field go. (The Galileo Project).Before the 16th century, society believed that the earth was at the very center of the universe. Any matchless who believed former(a)wise was condemned by the church service and, consequently, society as well. Due to the leave out of scientific enquiry, religious ideas were the only ways that people could muckle the world. They had no scientific evidence to bear out up any sort of explanations. go there were ideas and theories rough the solar system that had yet to be proven, no one at the cartridge holder had the mechanism to back up this theory. During the scientific revolution in the 16th century, a scientist named Johannes Kepler proposed three laws of planetary motion. Kepler went on to explain that these accurate descriptions of the motion of any planet and any beam nearly quaternity hundred years ago, and argon still by NASA today. Kepler depict quintet different hardened stationary shop of mountainss. If it were not for Kelper, society in all probability would not have the Lagrange points, which be used to give accurate locations of coiffeed loop hoop orbits in- in the midst of the earth and the moon around.Technology then had to snap up up with the theory. An early 16th century scientist came up with a tool that would literally transform the outlook of how society perceived the world and later, level off the universe. Spectacle maker Hans Lippershey is accredited with the earliest record design of the optic scope. When excogitate actually got out about(predicate) this new innovative tool, Galileo Galilei do a name for it.Galileo took the orbit and did what no one else thought of, he bravely pointed it towards the heavens. His theory caused a ripple effect in the scientific community. His undying devotion and determination for discovery led to a better dis prospect of the universe. He gave another(prenominal) scientists, artists, and philosophers of centuries to come something they domiciliate build on.A cathode-ray oscilloscope perfected from Hans Lippershey invention by the simple arrangement of two lenses in a long, narrow tube allowed Galileo to see objects ten times much clearly. With his primitive range, Galileo was fit-bodied to make a number of remark satisfactory discoveries. At the time, people believed the come out of the moon was smooth and flat. However, Galileo found mountains, valleys, and craters on the surface. non only was Galileo the first man to see the craters of the moon, but he as well as went on to discover sunspots, the four vauntingly moons of Jupiter, and the rings of Saturn.This fire of ideas that Galileo created through with(predicate) his discoveries inspired scientists to create cathode-ray oscilloscopes of increasing size and complexity. With the ever-changing shape and form of crushs, astronomers have been able to see ever off the beaten track(predicate)ther into the universe with change magnitude clarity. Although reachs have revealed much over their nearly 400-year register, they atomic number 18 still express in what they jakes show us from Earth. Light pollution, cloud cover and the Earths turbulent cash machine constantly interfere with telescope views from Earth. No telescope, to date, has been able to have the trounce these problems. To conquer these problems, scientists decided that a telescope must be transportd above the atmosphere, in orbit around the Earth. That is where the Hubble telescope was born.The Hubble telescope, giveed in 1990, marks the most signifi fo ott advance in astronomy since Galileos telescope. This telescope was the first to be launched into orbit and is therefore at the net mountaintop for viewing the universe. Above the distortion of the atmosphere, above rain clouds and spark pollution, Hubble has an unobstructed view of the universe. So what did the new telescope discover? Scientists claim that they have used Hubble to observe the most distant stars and galaxies as well as the planets in our solar system. Even twenty years after its launch, Hubble is still in working order. However, the time has come to improve this dapple and create something that allow for go beyond the Hubbles view. It is excessively important to have something that we argon able to do regular maintenance on. By placing a permanent telescope on the moon, we can explore the universe in even great capacity than the Hubble telescope did. Even today Galileos influence is being entangle in the failment of telescopes and their increasing abilit y to explore space.This opportunity to place future space telescopes in superior milieus would create a situation where Moon- ground crews can easily visit them. It is promising enough that NASA should now acquire brainstorming options and opportunities that I pull up stakes recommend towards them. Telescopes on the Moon, especially instruments commensurate of feats well beyond the Hubble and Webb, but how can someone demonstrate how to overcome the cons over the pros? Placing telescopes on the moon telescopes could be considered a to a greater extent persistent environment than a telescope in orbit. Thus, placing telescopes inwardly the service range of lunar outposts forget have the effect of firming up the future for those outposts, and excessively receive funding necessary to keep them operational and growing. The biggest question is can you improve on the next telescope by creating one ultimate telescope or developing many with variety of task gift all while keeping wi thin a practical figure?Galileos Influence on the Scientific Community lance K. Erickson Ph. D., a professor of applied aviation intuitions and space studies at Embry riddle Aeronautical University, agrees that Galileo had a strong influence on the scientific community. However, in our interview on DATE, Dr. Erickson added that even if Galileo had not lived, society would not be that far croup where it is now in space exploration. In addition to Galileo, many other scientists in history were developing their own telescopes. Leonard Digges, for example, invented the reflecting and refracting telescopes, but never capitalized on his invention.Another professor, however, emphasizes Galileos importance. In an interview with Dr. Alan R. Pratt, professor of humanities at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, he stated that if it were not for Galileo, many artists and philosophers would not have been so greatly influenced on the imagination of the universe. Dr. Pratt, statedIn name o f any other changes that happened in aside centuries regarding science, I really do not think that any philosopher or artist could have had a bigger impact than Galileo did. In a matter of a hardly a(prenominal) months, Galileo was able to alter the phylogeny of science so deeply as those months amongst the end of 1609 and the beginning of 1610. He now was at the diadem rewriting the book of laws, which brooded of raw facts with evidence to back it up. He literally changed physics, which, in turn changed cosmology, and again that changed the way future philosophers and artists imagined the universe. This influenced many poets, broadly because they were stimulated on a sense of anxiety, that Galileo discovered that society is in fact on a wasted planet.According to Dr. Pratt, this change in science introduces a big change in religion and anthropology. pulp 1 portrays Galileo trying to convince the Church. attribute 1 Galileo and his Discoverieshttp//www.chrismadden.co.uk/moo n/galileo-telescope-church.gif. opposed many revolutions, the scientific revolution changed peoples minds, rather than the way society acted. citizenry began to seek scientific answers to things that they before accepted as truth without question. frame of reference 1, shows that Galileo had a lot of explaining to do, but that it was not easy convincing the church of his discoveries. His theory was very much against religion, and Galileo knew this would change everything. As a result of Galileos influence, science and mathematics began to be more widely accepted than school of thought when used to explain phenomenon. Today, it is hard for anyone to comprehend that there was a time where claims were not look fored scientifically. Galileo developed a more moderne concept of exploreing which scientist still use today.Sir Isaac normality Taking Telescopes to the Next LevelFollowing Galileo, inc disembowel physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, Sir Isaac Newton is considered by many scholars and members of the general public to be one of the more influential people in human history. In 1661, the scientific revolution was at its peak, and many works of basic to modern science had appeared. Astronomers from Copernicus to Kepler had elaborated the heliocentric system of the universe. Galileo had proposed the foundations of a new mechanism built on the principle of inertia. Led by Descartes, philosophers had begun to formulate a new conception of reputation as an intricate, impersonal, and inert machine. Newton was about to change the laws of the universe that were backed up by mathematically proven certainty. These laws were physical by nature but were neither sporadic nor circumscribed locally. According to Newton in Principia, laws were everyday. There were three laws that would describe universal gravitation. The only limit of these laws of motion was that they could not be applied to the atomic level or on some conditions that would include the speed of sluttish (Cambridge).Newtons TelescopeIn addition to these theories, Newton followed where Galileo left off and made a bigger and better telescope that would yet again change the way the public would view the universe. Figure 2 shows one of Newtons many drawings of his telescope.Figure 2 Newtons Drawing of a Telescope.The drawing repre displaces the time when Newton began formulating the idea of optic lenses. An optic lens bends crystalize in order to refract and, therefore, magnify the image. Newton went on to develop what is known as the theory of optics.Theory of OpticsThe theory of optics utilizes a cuplike mirror to develop a refracting telescope. Newton was able to utilize the obvious light spectrum and show that bending it would create a magnifying effect. Understanding refracting telescopes did mulct a big role in the information of future telescopes. In 1704, Newton published Opticks, which resulted in his victory in th e debate of the nature of light. In his publication, he questioned the theories of light, defraction, and the macroscopical spectrum. He developed experiments to test these questions which he reviewed in Opticks. While this controversial debate over the nature of light was tested by many scientists, Newtons theory of optics became generally accepted. This theory led into the law of superposition, consisting of a wave-like property. Superposition sacrificeed a new opening in physical optics. It wasnt until Sir Isaac Newton developed the next upgrade to the telescope, which he called the reflecting telescope, and later renamed as the Newtonian Reflector. This new optic lens would be revolutionary in terms of seeing deeper into space. Figure 3 depicts one of Newtons large telescopes with a structure to reach the eyepiece. These huge telescopes were the first of their time and were the first to use a pitch lap, a polished optical surface that acts as a mirror. Newton claimed that thi s reflector would be the knocker of the design of the Newtonian telescope. Thus, the optic lens that Newton perfected within his telescope is still used today in the Hubble Space Telescope. Newtons development of the optic lens proved to be the next important stride in space exploration. His upgraded development in the telescope was indeed the influence needed to keep the evolution of telescopes going.Figure 3 A large Newtonian Reflector.The Hubble Space TelescopeScience has come a long way since the first telescopes were imagined in the minds of their creators. The complexity can range from a ten dollar telescope to multi- trillion dollar telescopes developed by todays space explorers. The most well-known of todays telescopes is the Hubble space telescope, which is used to capture images of space from Earths orbit.Long before the Hubble telescope was launched into orbit in 1990, scientists were developing ideas of send telescopes into space. In 1946 Lyman Spitzer, a inquiryer fr om Yale University, wrote a paper entitled astronomic Advantages of an Extra-Terrestrial Observatory, in which he discusses how Earths atmosphere affects the visibility of stars and planets in space. Through his research and development, Spitzer began collaborating with scientists and professionals to move his plan into action. In the 1960s, NASA began to discuss the feasibility of such a project, and in 1971, it was granted permission to further discuss the blueprint for the project. The largest restraint in the creation of the Hubble telescope was acquiring the funds for the project, which was estimated to cost $400 to $500 million. After revising parts of the telescope to make it more cost-effective, Congress finally the design for funding at $200 million and established the Large Space Telescope project funding in 1977. NASA had planned for the telescope to be launched in 1983 however, assembly of the Hubble was delayed through 1985, when it was finally completed. Figure 4 sh ows the various control systems of the Hubble as it is in orbit. The planned launch had finally been set for October 1986. This launch was interrupted in January, when tragedy struck the Challenger space shuttle as it ascended into the atmosphere and exploded above the Florida skyline. NASA officials began to question whether the telescope would make it safely into orbit. iodine year later, shuttle launches resumed, but it was not until April 24, 1990 that space shuttle find finally carried the Hubble into orbit.Figure 4 Important Features of the Hubble Space Telescope. more or less would consider the launch of the Hubble a advantage however, one mission of the launch was to gain spectacular images of the cosmos. Within a few weeks of being launched, the images that were sent back to NASA main office appeared blurry and out of focus. According to the NASA History Division, An investigating revealed a spherical aberration in the primary mirror, due to a miscalibrated measuring i nstrument that caused the edges of the mirror to be ground slightly too flat (NASA). In December 1993, the first servicing mission was performed with five back-to-back spacewalks, fixing the aberration as well as performing telephone number maintenance. When the images finally developed into sharp, clear pictures of space, NASA considered the maintenance mission a success. With sustained servicing missions, Hubble has continued to explore the universe from Earths orbit for the past twenty years.Additional TelescopesAlthough the Hubble space telescope is not the only telescope in orbit, it has remained the only one to operate on visible light wavelengths. Other telescopes, such as the Spitzer space telescope detect infrared frequency radiation, or heat radiation. In addition, Chandra is a telescope that measures X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as exploded stars, accord to the Chandra X-ray observatory. Another telescope, the Swift, measures gamma rays. NASA h eadquarters explains that,Swifts primary goal is to unravel the mystery of gamma ray bursts. The bursts are random and fleeting explosions, second only to the Big Bang in total energy output. Gamma rays are a type of light millions of times more energetic than light human eyes can detect. Gamma ray bursts last only from a few milliseconds to about one minute. Each burst likely signals the birth of a downhearted hole. (NASA).As one can see, there are multiple uses for telescopes in space, ranging from visible explorations, to X-ray, to gamma ray, and beyond. As science evolves, so ordain the applications of telescopes in space.throng Webb Space TelescopeThe future of telescopes is rapidly evolving. Within a few years, the Hubble leave behind no longer be the main operational telescope in orbit. In 2014, NASA plans to launch the next telescope into orbit the crowd Webb Space Telescope. This large infrared telescope forget consist of a 6.5 meter primary mirror and measure parts o f the universe that have never been documented before. As seen in Figure 5, the throng Webb Space Telescopes mirror is nearly three times the size of the Hubble mirror. With its four measuring instruments the Near InfraRed Camera, Near InfraRed Spectograph, Mid-InfraRed Instrument, and the Fine steerage Sensor Tunable Filter Camera, the Webb will measure infrared waves with some visible range. Figure 6 shows the different parts of the James Webb Telescope and where it will be placed in orbit. According to NASA, The Webb has four main science themes The End of the Dark Ages First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and telluric Systems and the Origins of Life. (NASA). It will explore the development of the first galaxies, and how they have connected to ours.Figure 5 Mirror Comparison between JWST and Hubble(BBC News).Figure 6 The James Webb Space Telescope(BBC News).Telescopes and the MoonThe moon is often brought up in f orums on the NASA website regarding the possibilities of placing telescopes on the lunar surface. In order to even consider how to fulfill the four Ws of curiosity (what, where, when, and why), scientists must find a effectual reason for leaving the practical environment of the Lower Earth cooking stove (LEO). The LEO is an ideal place for telescopes to be in the reach of astronauts for routine maintenance. This is an important issue to explore for the future of telescopes. In an interview with Dr. Lance Erickson, he stated that the idea of placing a telescope on surface of the moon is just not practical. The reason for that is simply because the rise-power to transport the telescope onto the lunar surface is not there. Dr. Erickson explained that even if NASA decided to assemble the telescope on the surface of the moon rather than transporting it, they would have to do so on the far side of the moon. This would result in requiring a lunar outpost for routine maintenance. Even th ough the idea of scientists placing telescopes on the moon sounds like an ideal project for future exploration, Dr. Erickson stated that the amount of silver needed to budget a project of that magnitude would be beyond practical.Furthermore, having a variety of telescopes rather than one big expensive telescope could be a more feasible way to do research. Dr. Erickson explains that having a backup plan before the actual plan is but how master efficiency. With a backup plan, the probability of having a successful outcome for research doubles. NASA Space Center will not look into any suggested projects that do not have a valid contingency plan, insuring that research and development will help with funding. This way if a mistake is made between the launch of the plan and the actual space flight, scientists have something to fall back on. The greatest barrier of getting an idea to machine is having a logical way of overcoming hurtles that scientist have to adapt to. For example, it i s necessary to satisfy the needs of the project within the limits of the funds available in order to justify the research with the public. Having the taxpayers agree on research is huge because much of the funding may come from taxpayers wallets.In coming up with a logical proposal to NASA about having a lunar-based telescope, which, in-turn would have to be submitted to congress, there are a mix of pros and cons regarding the project.Dr. Erickson pointed out the cons of placing a telescope on the lunar surface, there are some feasible advantages in fulfilling this idea. Paul Gilster, an author, looks at peer-reviewed research on deep space exploration, with an eye toward interstellar possibilities on his website. For the past five years, this site has coordinated its efforts with the Tau Zero Foundation, and now serves as the Foundations watchword forum. Paul Gilster statesPutting an enormous radio receiver telescope on the far side of the Moon has so many advantages that its har d to imagine not doing it, once our technology makes such ventures likely. Whatever the time frame, imagine an attenuation of radio noise from Earth many orders of magnitude over what is possible anywhere on the near side, much less on Earth itself. (Tau Zero Foundation)Due to the dusty environment of the moon, the top hat type of telescope to utilize would be a radio telescope. Objects on Earth and in space also emit other types of electromagnetic radiation that cannot be seen by the human eye, such as radio waves. The full range of radiation emitted by an object is called its electromagnetic spectrum. This radio astronomy is also known as the study of celestial objects that emit radio waves. Scientists can study astronomical phenomena that are often invisible in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, placing this type of telescope would be a benefit to the environment on the moon for the one big problem not mentioned through NASA website forums on how to deal with the lunar dust. The Apollo astronauts found that no matter how particular(prenominal) one was, the dust went everywhere. Having dust on the mirror or the ironware is not what one wants. With the Construction of a large based reverberate telescope on the lunar surface it would be particularly a problem during construction. Since radio waves penetrate dust, scientists can use radio astronomy techniques to study regions that cannot be seen in visible light, such as the dust-shrouded environments, which are the locations where you find the birth of stars and planets.Filling the Medium with Future TelescopesToday, NASAs budget will not be able to cover telescopes with cost running over in the trillions just in maintaining a lunar outpost. Being able to justify the cost of an improved telescope, while keeping it in the Unites States budget, will require filling the medium between the LEO and the Moon. So in filling this medium so instead of building on juncture task telescope, NASA s hould implement a variety of telescopes at all of the Lagrange points.Lagrange points are The Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points), the five positions in an orbital configuration where a pocket-sized object bear upon only by gravity can theoretically be stationary relative to two bigger objects (such as a satellite with respect to the Earth and Moon) (Web Definitions). According to Dr. Erickson, he suggested that there are three justified Lagrange points that can be used effectively for telescopes that can be designed for different task. In order to figure out what Lagrange point will fit a abandoned telescope the concern the best, you must consider the locations of each point. Furthermore, its important to point out that these Lagrange points follow under what is called the Keplers laws The three laws of planetary motion are briefly draw below (Physics Classroom)The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The faithfulness of Ellipses)An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of allude Areas)The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average outdistances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)With these laws in place, there is a chance of finding a loophole, and thats barely what the five Lagrange points are. For example, with the L1 point, and given the proper distance of a spacecraft, which is maintained between the earth and the sun so long as it is about a hundredth of the distance to the sun (ESA). The spacecraft will take about one year to go around the cheerfulness. With that, this point can used for monitoring the sun for its in the direct line between the sun and earth. In the interim, L1 is very unstable, so any spacecraft here will require their own rocket engines. Though, its a useful point for observing the sun (Dr. Erickson), the antennas which track it from Earth are also aimed at the Sun, which causes the disruptions with radio waves. Corrections are needed regularly (ESA). So the research will be limited to the sun.The next useful point will be Lagrange point 2. This point is located roughly around 1.5 million kilometers behind the earth (as viewed from the sun). To give a physical reference, it is estimated to be about four times the distance of the moon and earth (Figure 7).Figure 7 Lagrange lodge 1http//www.unexplainable.net/brainbox/uploads/1/21.jpgAccording to Dr. Erickson, this point will be the best for observing the larger universe which is observing deep space. The telescope would be free from the earths shadow, which distorts the observing views of the telescope mostly from the heat changes (correlation between day and night) (ESA). Most importantly, this point will be more stable than L1 and provide a more stable viewpoint.Figure 8 Lag range Point 2 (Scientific Web)http//www.scientific-web.com/en/Astronomy/CelestialMechanics/images/LagrangePoints03.jpgFurthermore, L3 Lagrange point is the best for observing the galaxy according to Dr. Erickson. This Lagrange point lies behind the Sun, and any objects which may be orbiting there cannot be seen from Earth. The orbiting speed would equal earth and place the telescope just removed the orbital period of earth and as well the telescope would be on the opposite side of the sun which would block out sun light pollution (ESA).The reason Lagrange point 4 and 5 could not be used is mostly because of debris. Debris gathers at these locations interferes with the stability of these points as well as the resistance to gravitational perturbations lets objects such as small asteroids and a lot of dust to gather around these locations (ESA).In recognizing the best locations for future telescopes, it is important to understand the future designs for each task that the telescope wil l be fulfilling beyond all telescopes land based or present space telescopes. Scientists must find the medium of fulfilling both areas of the given mission. Finding the balance between fixed orbit positions within any lagrange points is not rounding off to what scientists think is the closest position for the fix in orbit, but rather being precise within feet of accuracy. These loopholes are very temperamental. That one of the major flaws with dealing with fixed orbits beyond human control. Gravity, like anything else in space, either works strongly in the favor of positive results for research as well as negative outcomes. The success of the mission for the space telescope will be greatly affected by where the telescope is located. Scientists will be faced with the greatest altercate of placing these telescopes not just in these point orbits but maintaining these telescopes in the point orbits.ConclusionsWhile it may seem like a simple history lesson about Galileo and Newton but i f it wasnt for their influence in the science community, society would not be where it is now in regards to space exploration. From Galileo to Hubble, much of the tools that helped Newton are still helping us today with telescopes. From retaining the laws of Kepler, to the Lagrange points, everything used in NASA has something to represent scientist of the 16th century today.Only a few settings are ideal for space telescopes. The best telescope design will gibe the Hubble. Like Galileo to Newton, the telescope of tomorrow will be perfected and change magnitude in size and complexity as scientists learn from past mistakes. The James Webb telescope will be the next generation, but even though it is the most modern telescope, scientists are still looking beyond the Webb on what and where to place the next telescope. The future of telescopes will be satellite based on Lagrange points 1, 2 and 3. With a given purpose for each point, the musing will be different from one another this w ill open up a variety of experiments for NASA.The best place to observe the Sun will be at Lagrange point 1, for it is in the direct line between the Sun and the Earth. Though it falls in the criteria of being in a loop hole, being a fix orbit is exactly what a satellite telescope needs. It will require some rocket power to maintain its position in orbit. Given the circumstances of it position, it will only be able to observe the Sun, which scientist are still encyclopaedism about today. With the only flaw of this point being the radio halt because of the Sun, there is still much to learn from the L1 point that a telescope will be an asset to better this research.The next best position for future telescopes would be L2, as it is an ideal place to observe the larger Universe, which is observing deep space. The reason for this is because the telescope would be free of the Earths shadow. This is very important when it come to exploring space in the means of using a telescope. Every a stronomer knows that light is a major influence on telescope imagery. Light is what creates an imbalance in heat in space. proscribed of all the Lagrange points, L2 is the best. It is the most stable of the three points and it can increase the distance we can explore into deep sp