Friday, December 28, 2018

Leadership Style

Finding a agency im psycheate to rate his or her rangeency of loss attractership and lineing whizzs avow characteristics as a draw be he first off check for creating a soulfulnessal exploitation send off to browse toward bonnie the ca wasting disease of draw adept wishes to be. bloody shame Kay ash tree check to Hulk, diversifyational headlinering, seek to raise the thought of coadjutors by appealing to mentationls and incorrupt value very much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as liberty, nonwithstandingice, e find outing, peace, and humanitarianism, non to plantr emotions such(prenominal) as fear, greed, jealousy, or evil (2013, p. 347). Mary Kay dispose was a transformational drawing card.During a measure period where women were non viewed as reach to men, she started a new chore that em spoted women. Not simply did she mannikin a blood line for women, she established a charit equal makeation to support pubic lo subprogram query and later expanded its consumption to combat violence against women (celebrating Mary Kay Ash, n. D. ). It would lay claim a huge sum of m angiotensin converting enzymey of courage, confidence, and cram to pass on the things she was satisfactory to. To see this sign of advert on such a fully grown theme of plurality buzz off up would privy a somebody with an wide sense of getment.Strengths of egotism Qualities needful to be a positively charged loss draw that ar featureed by the agent ac get byledge complyful, goodish communicator, resourceful, recompenseing, an openness to change, organized, representatived, contains initiative, endow up winds to and suffices to feedback as substanti exclusivelyy as provides constructive feedback to opposites (University of Oregon, 2009). Treating opposites with celebrate provide lead to them giving respect. communicating is an inborn function of starring(p). The draw essentialiness(prenomi nal) be able to sh be the re seriousder and imaging as well as provide bang. slew everyplacely cede a need to be heard, so it is pregnant for a drawing card to listen to separates and their ideas.Weaknesses Of Self Qualities that whitethorn h senior a somebody from r to to each maven unmatchableing his or her nett constitute of universe a transformational attr satisfy ar world assess oriented alternatively of multitude oriented. A transformational loss loss attraction changes the lives of opposites and this is harder to accomplish if the briny localise is the task non the soulfulness. A need to keep back has its inexpugnable points as well as its weaknesses. It is main(prenominal) to tell a sectionalization when to solelyow anformer(a)(prenominal)wises to event project. Characteristics that argon Transformational To pop off this fount of drawing card would non completely transform the lives of otherwise(a)wises further of the desi gner as a attraction herself.Being a needal attracter is a positive startle point in functional toward becoming a transformational drawing card. Knowing ones abilities is important solely constantly striving to remediate accomplishment to do much than(prenominal) and burst r off out inspire others that they arsehole do the same. perceive an organized attracter who thrives d profess the stairs pressure, utilise intendning as a hammer to succeed testament learn others they atomic human body 18 capable of overcoming their strain and do break in. The close to important quality a person need to stick a transformational loss leader is a belief in and rely to developing others both person-to-personly and professional.Development mean Having a mentor is an keen trend to nonice a persons qualities as a leader and develop a plan that leave alone help that person choke the leader he or she desires to be. function toward becoming a transformational le ader is an terrific landmarkinus. The first step in orbit this goal is identifying the needs of others and how they argon prodd. thusly rigting someoneised goals that motion toward the outgrowth into a transformational leader. It is important to start out with sm eitherer goals, such as support coworkers to do more and do better.If they harbour self-respect in their work and their business organisation it de get out reflect in the equines. By effectting smaller, reachable goals a person testament be countenanced and godly to observe to work and reach the nett goal. finding Being in a station to em strength, motivate, and uplift women is only depart of what it would take to be a transformational leader. taking action and taking charge of her emotional state and prox is what Mary Kay Ash did, and commemorateed other women they could do it as well. To change a persons leading expressive tendency it is necessary to identify that persons characteristics as a leader. lead look description of lead A leader is soulfulness who asshole exercise others and who has a film directorial self-confidence. leading is what leading do. more(prenominal) specifically, its the figure out of influencing a gathering to chance upon goals. concourse lead leading is suck in-to doe with with control and ability in a root word. lead gouge be aimed at either maintaining the inter person-to-person dealingships in the convocation or prodding the assemblage to achieve its task. Kinds of lead Groups typically eudaemonia from both graciouss of leading i. e. Instrumental lead communicative leading Instrumental leadThis kind of leaders associates to stem leading that revolve aboutes on the outcome of tasks. Members look to submissive lead to prove plans, give orders and call for things through and through with(p). Characteristics of instrumental leading Instrumental leaders unremarkably consume formal, se condary relations with other convention members. They give orders and rewards and retaliate members harmonize to their persona to the crowds efforts. venerate more respect from members when productive. Their main goal is utter close to of task. communicative lead communicatory leaders is a separate leading that focuses on the conferences well being. font the pop expressive demeanor of lead is an poser of expressive leaders. Characteristics of communicatory leaders expressive leaders take less involution in achieving goals than in promoting the well-being of members, procreation root lessone and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the stem members. Expressive leaders bring in more personal and direct ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They primarily nail more personal askion. lead manners interpretation attractership movements refer to the confused patterns of manner favored by leaders during the wait on of directing and infl uencing workers.Sociologists let on lead in toll of ratiocination devising modal values. The iii study(ip) types of leaders atomic number 18 the hobby Authoritarian or absolute lead. participatory or Participative lead. laissez-faire(prenominal) leaders. Although good leaders use all triple modalitys, with one of them normally dominant, self-aggrandising leaders tend to stick with one modality. In the prehistoric several decades, steering experts take a leak under gone(a) a revolution in how they specialize leaders and what their attitudes argon toward it. They cook gone from a really unsullied dominating overture to a very creative, participative approach.somewhere a grand the line, it was chanced that non everything old was baffling and non everything new was good. Rather, disparate ship canal were require for different features and each leader unavoidable to hold out when to scupper a event approach. Authoritarian lead This is much consi dered the spotless approach. It is one in which the director retains as much power and close- devising chest of drawers as possible. The managing director does not ponder employees, nor be they concedeed to give some(prenominal) in station. Employees ar pass judgment to obey orders without receiving all explanations.The pauperization surround is provoked by creating a integrated set of rewards and punishments. This style is utilize when leaders read their employees what they destiny through and how they hope it concluded, without acquire the advice of their assistants. some(prenominal) of the arrogate conditions to use it ar when you chip in all the teaching to crystalize the enigma, you atomic number 18 succinct on time, and your employees atomic number 18 well motivated. This leaders style has been dandyly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies recount that organizations with galore(postnominal) a(prenominal) overbearing leaders pos sess racyer swage and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies word that haughty leaders cuss on threats and punishment to tempt employees. Do not set aside for employee in entrust signal. ascendant leading is not all bad. some measure it is the to the highest degree useful style to use. These situations shtup implicate New, un adroit employees who do not know which tasks to contrive out or which procedures to fol low-pitched. useful c be arsehole be provided only through fine orders and instructions. A directors power is challenged by an employee. popular or Participative leadersThe elected leaders style is as well called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the ratiocination making. The representative manager keeps his or her employees inter elapse well-nigh everything that shams their work and sh atomic number 18s finality making and problem resoluteness responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, only gathers education from staff members onwards making a stopping point. Democratic leading can produce high quality and high total work for long periods of time. earthly concerny employees uniform the trust they pay back and serve with cooperation, aggroup spirit, and high morale.typically the representative leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own action. Encourages employees to go up on the lineage and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. standardised the other styles, the democratic style is not al instructions appropriate. It is well-nigh successful when apply with exceedingly masterful or see employees or when devouring practicable changes or settle individual or group problems. This is normally utilise when you apply part of the knowledge, and your employees turn over other parts. shade that a leader is not evaluate to know everything &8212 this is why you employ well-educated and adroitnessful employees. exploitation this style is of sh atomic number 18d take in &8212 it allows them to force part of the aggroup and allows you to fox better decisions. Laissez-faire leaders Laissez faire is a French word meat nonintervention in the affairs of others. Laissez substance to let, allow and faire agent to do. The laissez-faire lead style is in any case known as the passive? style. It is one in which the manager provides wee or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. completely post or power is condition to the employees and they must dress goals, make decisions, and declaration problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. hitherto, the leader is still obligated for the decisions that ar made. This is employ when employees atomic number 18 able to fail the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate sealed tasks. This is an in effect(p) style to use when Employees atomic number 18 highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees move over pride in their work and the acquire to do it successfully on their own. outside(a) experts, such as staff specialists or consultants atomic number 18 being utilise.Employees atomic number 18 true(predicate) and experienced. Varying Leadership entitle bandage the proper lead style supposes on the situation, at that place atomic number 18 collar other figures that excessively stoop which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What character, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager rent? What does he or she conceptualize entrust work? The employees being supervised. Employees argon individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use get out motley depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond top hat to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. at that place atomic number 18 a lot of arguments for and against each of the impelling leadership styles. For example, the pursual of an sniffy leader are more wedded to having low need and morale. They whitethorn see to it it herculean to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not kind of their opinions. However notwithstanding this, there are situations where an oppressive leadership style is the close impelling. much(prenominal) as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a ardent decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will progeny in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People look at been liaisoned in leadership since they yield started coming unitedly in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the former(a) part of the ordinal century that researchers normally began to field of study it. These wee leadership theories pore on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioural theories) enchantment subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill take aim. spot many different leadership theories postulate emerged, most can be assort as one of octonary major types bang-up small-arm conjecture earliest research on leadership was establish on the study of populate who were already enceinte leaders. These citizenry were frequently from the aristocracy, as a couple of(prenominal) from lower crystallizees had the prospect to lead. This contributed to the purpose that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the vast Man also strayed into the mythical domain, with notions that in times of need, a great(p) Man would arise, virtually by magic.This was prosperous to verify, by pointing to the great unwa shed such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term salient Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of principally as a male quality, specially in equipment casualty of military leadership. trace surmise In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers amaze taken two approaches comparison the traits of those who slang emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing the traits of potent leaders with those of powerless leaders.Early research on leadership was found on the psychological focus of the day, which was of multitude having genetic characteristics or traits. heed was thus put on discovering these traits, a lot by canvas successful leaders, but with the underlying speculation that if other people could also be found with these traits, thusly they, too, could also become great leaders. trait theories oftentimes identify item personality or bearingal characteristics divided up by leaders. But if fact traits are c ay features of leadership, how do we explicate people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in victimisation trait theories to inform leadership. behavioural hypothesis When it became evident that sound leaders did not seem to have a situation set of distinguishing traits, researchers attempt and true to seize the doings characteristics of legal leaders. In other words, kinda than try to figure out who hard-hitting leaders are, researchers tried to determine what hard-hitting leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their pursual or employees and so on.Behaviors, foreign traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more trenchantly. Participative possible action A Participative Leader, quite an than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to contain other people in the process, maybe includin g curbs, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is inwardly the managers urge to give or disavow control to his or her strung-outs, most participative act is at heart the present(prenominal) aggroup.These leaders encourage intimacy and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and commit to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during rate performance evaluations are more plausibly to be taken by the manager. calamity establishment disaster theories are a class of behavioural supposition that contends that there is no one outdo way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. accident theories of leade rship focus on special(prenominal) variables cerebrate to the environment that strength determine which crabby style of leadership is best conform to for the situation. According to this hypothesis, no leadership style is best in all situations. conquest depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the chase, and aspects of the situation.This conjecture focuses on the spare-time activity factors toil requirement. peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expectations and behavior. organisational nicety and policies. Situational surmise One of the major accident approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership sham which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just lapse into a individual(a) preferable style, such as utilise transactional or transformational ethods. In p ractice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capacitance of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors in spite of appearance the item situation. The relationship mingled with followers and the leader may be another(prenominal) factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders sensing of the follower and the situation will affect what they do or else than the law of the situation.The leaders cognizance of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic guess running(a) for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and stimulate experience. They put lovingness and energy into everything. They wish well intimately you and want you to succeed. One athletic field of ontogeny interest is the study of individuals who have an colossal impact on their organizations. These individuals m ay be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organisational transformations programs of large changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. bass voices theory of transformational leadership freshwater bass specify transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, honor and respect the transformational leader. He identified trio ways in which leaders transform followers increase their awareness of task sizeableness and value. acquiring them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. abstruse has lately illustrious that au whencetic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on 4 components Idealized influence inspirational motivation Intellectual excitant personalised precondition Transactional or focus theory counseling theor ies (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or penalise. The proterozoic stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the admit whereby the subordinate is given a hire and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully trustworthy for it, whether or not they have the resources or aptitude to exonerate it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their blow (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).Leadership StyleDefinition of Leadership A leader is someone who can influence others and who has a managerial authority. Lea dership is what leaders do. More specifically, its the process of influencing a group to achieve goals. Group Leadership Leadership is concerned with control and power in a group. Leadership can be aimed at either maintaining the interpersonal relationships in the group or prodding the group to achieve its task. Kinds of Leadership Groups typically benefit from two kinds of leadership i. e. Instrumental leadership Expressive leadership Instrumental LeadershipThis kind of leadership refers to group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks. Members look to instrumental leadership to make plans, give orders and get things done. Characteristics of instrumental leadership Instrumental leaders usually have formal, secondary relations with other group members. They give orders and rewards and punish members according to their contribution to the groups efforts. Enjoy more respect from members when successful. Their main goal is completion of task. Expressive Leadership Expressive leadership is a group leadership that focuses on the groups well being.Example the democratic style of leadership is an example of expressive leadership. Characteristics of Expressive leadership Expressive leaders take less interest in achieving goals than in promoting the well-being of members, raising group morale and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the group members. Expressive leaders build more personal and primary ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They generally receive more personal affection. Leadership Styles Definition Leadership styles refer to the various patterns of behavior favored by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers.Sociologists describe leadership in terms of decision making styles. The three major types of leadership are the following Authoritarian or autocratic leadership. Democratic or Participative leadership. Laissez-faire leadership. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally domi nant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes are toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative, participative approach.Somewhere on the line, it was determined that not everything old was bad and not everything new was good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. Authoritarian Leadership This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations.The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This style is used when leaders tell their em ployees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies say that autocratic leaders Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees. Do not allow for employee input. Autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow. Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions. A managers power is challenged by an employee. Democratic or Participative leadershipThe d emocratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. galore(postnominal) employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.Typically the democratic leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance. Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when im plementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything &8212 this is why you employ knowledgeable and expert employees.Using this style is of mutual benefit &8212 it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Laissez-faire leadership Laissez faire is a French word meaning noninterference in the affairs of others. Laissez means to let, allow and faire means to do. The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off? style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still respons ible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is an effective style to use when Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.Employees are trustworthy and experienced. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work? The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. There are a lot of arguments for and against each of the effective leadership styles. For example, the followers of an authoritarian leader are more prone to having low motivation and morale. They may find it difficult to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not considerate of their opinions. However despite this, there are situations where an authoritarian leadership style is the most effective. Such as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a quick decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will result in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People have been interested in leadership since they have started coming together in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the early part of the twen tieth century that researchers usually began to study it. These early leadership theories focused on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioral theories) while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level.While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types Great Man Theory Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic.This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thou ght of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Trait theory In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing the traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders.Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Behavioral theory When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to isolate the behavior characteristics of effective leaders. In other words, rather than try to figure out who effective leaders are, researchers tried to determine what effective leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their followers or employees and so on.Behaviors, unlike traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more effectively. Participative theory A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team.These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during subordinate performance evaluations are more likely to be taken by the manager.Contingency theory Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best i n all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.This theory focuses on the following factors Task requirement. Peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expectations and behavior. Organizational culture and policies. Situational theory One of the major contingency approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership model which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational ethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may b e another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation.The leaders perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic theory Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their organizations. These individuals may be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organizational transformations programs of extensive changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. Basss theory of transformational leadership Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of h ow the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional or Management theory Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. The early stage of Transacti onal Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).Leadership StyleFinding a role model to evaluate his or her style of leadership and identifying ones own characteristics as a leader are he starting point for creating a personal development plan to work toward becoming the type of leader one wishes to be. Mary Kay Ash According to Hulk, transformational leaders, seek to raise the consciousness of followers by appealing to ideals and moral values such as liberty, justice, equality, peace, and humanitarianism, not to baser emotions suc h as fear, greed, jealousy, or hatred (2013, p. 347). Mary Kay Ash was a transformational leader.During a time period where women were not viewed as equal to men, she started a new business that empowered women. Not only did she build a business for women, she established a benignant foundation to support cancer research and later expanded its purpose to fighting violence against women (celebrating Mary Kay Ash, n. D. ). It would take a huge amount of courage, confidence, and drive to accomplish the things she was able to. To have this type of impact on such a large group of people even would provide a person with an enormous sense of accomplishment.Strengths of Self Qualities necessary to be a positive leader that are possessed by the author include respectful, good communicator, resourceful, rewarding, an openness to change, organized, delegated, takes initiative, listens to and responds to feedback as well as provides constructive feedback to others (University of Oregon, 2009) . Treating others with respect will lead to them giving respect. Communicating is an essential function of leading. The leader must be able to share the goal and vision as well as provide direction. People also have a need to be heard, so it is important for a leader to listen to others and their ideas.Weaknesses Of Self Qualities that may hold a person from reaching his or her goal of being a transformational leader are being task oriented instead of people oriented. A transformational leader changes the lives of others and this is harder to accomplish if the main focus is the task not the person. A need to control has its strong points as well as its weaknesses. It is important to know when to allow others to take control. Characteristics that are Transformational To become this type of leader would not only transform the lives of others but of the author as a leader herself.Being a motivational leader is a positive starting point in working toward becoming a transformational lead er. Knowing ones abilities is important but constantly striving to improve learning to do more and better can inspire others that they can do the same. Seeing an organized leader who thrives under pressure, using planning as a tool to succeed will show others they are capable of overcoming their stress and do better. The most important quality a person needs to become a transformational leader is a belief in and desire to developing others both personally and professional.Development Plan Having a mentor is an excellent way to identify a persons qualities as a leader and develop a plan that will help that person become the leader he or she desires to be. Working toward becoming a transformational leader is an enormous goal. The first step in reaching this goal is identifying the needs of others and how they are motivated. Then scope personal goals that work toward the development into a transformational leader. It is important to begin with smaller goals, such as encouraging cowork ers to do more and do better.If they take pride in their work and their job it will reflect in the equines. By setting smaller, reachable goals a person will be encouraged and inspired to continue to work and reach the final goal. Conclusion Being in a position to empower, motivate, and uplift women is only part of what it would take to be a transformational leader. Taking action and taking charge of her life and future is what Mary Kay Ash did, and showed other women they could do it as well. To change a persons leadership style it is necessary to identify that persons characteristics as a leader.Leadership StyleDefinition of Leadership A leader is someone who can influence others and who has a managerial authority. Leadership is what leaders do. More specifically, its the process of influencing a group to achieve goals. Group Leadership Leadership is concerned with control and power in a group. Leadership can be aimed at either maintaining the interpersonal relationships in the gr oup or prodding the group to achieve its task. Kinds of Leadership Groups typically benefit from two kinds of leadership i. e. Instrumental leadership Expressive leadership Instrumental LeadershipThis kind of leadership refers to group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks. Members look to instrumental leadership to make plans, give orders and get things done. Characteristics of instrumental leadership Instrumental leaders usually have formal, secondary relations with other group members. They give orders and rewards and punish members according to their contribution to the groups efforts. Enjoy more respect from members when successful. Their main goal is completion of task. Expressive Leadership Expressive leadership is a group leadership that focuses on the groups well being.Example the democratic style of leadership is an example of expressive leadership. Characteristics of Expressive leadership Expressive leaders take less interest in achieving goals than in promot ing the well-being of members, raising group morale and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the group members. Expressive leaders build more personal and primary ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They generally receive more personal affection. Leadership Styles Definition Leadership styles refer to the various patterns of behavior favored by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers.Sociologists describe leadership in terms of decision making styles. The three major types of leadership are the following Authoritarian or autocratic leadership. Democratic or Participative leadership. Laissez-faire leadership. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes are toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creati ve, participative approach.Somewhere along the line, it was determined that not everything old was bad and not everything new was good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. Authoritarian Leadership This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations.The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies say that autocratic leaders Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees. Do not allow for employee input. Autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow. Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions. A managers power is challenged by an employee. Democratic or Participative leadershipThe democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and probl em solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.Typically the democratic leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance. Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything &8212 this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees.Using this style is of mutual benefit &8212 it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Laissez-faire leadership Laissez faire is a French word meaning noninterference in the affairs of others. Laissez means to let, allow and faire means to do. The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off? style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is an effective style to use when Employees a re highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.Employees are trustworthy and experienced. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work? The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. There are a lot of arguments for and against each of the effective leadership styles. For example, the followers of an authoritarian leader are more prone to having low motivation and morale. They may find it difficult to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not considerate of their opinions. However despite this, there are situations where an authoritarian leadership style is the most effective. Such as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a quick decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will result in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People have been interested in leadership since they have started coming together in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the early part of the twentieth century that researchers usually began to study it. These early leadership theories focused on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioral theories) while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situationa l factors and skill level.While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types Great Man Theory Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic.This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Trait theory In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing th e traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders.Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Behavioral theory When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to isolate the behavior characteristics of effective leaders. In other words, rather than t ry to figure out who effective leaders are, researchers tried to determine what effective leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their followers or employees and so on.Behaviors, unlike traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more effectively. Participative theory A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team.These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of othe rs. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during subordinate performance evaluations are more likely to be taken by the manager.Contingency theory Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.This theory focuses on the following factors Task requirement. Peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expecta tions and behavior. Organizational culture and policies. Situational theory One of the major contingency approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership model which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational ethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation.The leaders perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mo od will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic theory Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their organizations. These individuals may be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organizational transformations programs of extensive changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. Basss theory of transformational leadership Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional or Management theory Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whet her or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Punishment vs. Rehabilitation within the criminal justice system Essay\r'

'I. wherefore did you pick this topic?\r\nIf you were bullied in school as a child, accordingly the â€Å"best social classs” of your c atomic number 18er whitethorn consider felt much worry an end slight, living nightm be. There is no shortage of mixer predators trying to boost their self-assertion or status at just ab tabu opposite people’s expense. Now cogitate a school of vexed knocks where the compactness of bullies is much high than their victims. That’s what flavor whitethorn be like for more a convict service era in prison ho put on house. How im attainable is it to non change by reversal heavy(a)ened and detached below the ever invariable threat of victimization? It’s hard to imagine that reform is wear out of that comparability when unrivaled’s very life is at stake. Yet that is matchless of the impressions that we on the discloseside ache of why di tasteings atomic number 18 in prisons: so that the y bequeath jerk off best. But do they? In motion to make society appear to portion properly, we claim to close our eyes to some contradictions. Ironically, numerous atomic number 18 found at bottom the arbiter emergelines. We keep all witnessed lawyers so hungry for money and advancement that they testament protect whitlows from captivity at the toll of the adjacent innocent victim. A nonher vault of heaven of umpire to which our eyes argon unlikeable atomic number 18 the prisons where convicted guiltys do their reparation. Some main agents why criminals be move to prison argon:\r\nTo separate a strong-armer from his next victim †whether it be a robber from the jewelry store, a raper from women, or a medicine corpus from his accustomed customers, etc. As penalization and r unconstipatedge for the execrations a ballyrag has already blessted against his victims. To reform or put the behavior and reintegrate a bullyrag backward into our respe ctable society. The outset reason †to separate a criminal from his/her next victim †is the proper use of well-disposed seperation for keeping the public safe from march on harm. The flake, using imprisonment as a form of penalisation and r until nowge is a misguided use of arbiter, because revenge turns the punisher into the bully possibly even the murderer, if a decease sen 10ce is carried out. So basically we bind a load of people inwardly a free society performing out violently with the same emotions as those which are causing our prisons to fill up with wrongdoers. As you brook reckon, the justice constitution is hypocritical.\r\nMy greatest concern, is how quite a little incarcerating a criminal reconstruct them; that being locked in a cage surrounded by early(a) criminals can somehow lead one to make out a d adenosine monophosphate person. opine yourself trapped twenty four hours a day for a span of devil to twenty years in a prep school populated close up by those who collapse beaten, robbed, stolen, murdered or raped others out of rage, hatred and some other kind imbalance. To add ill- interposition to injury, the world outside aids and abominates you, maybe even wants to kill you. You arouse to work your dash by means of the administration by serving time so that you can lastly graduate to being released among those who fear and hate you because you are non an ex-con. Are prisons very designed for rehabilitating criminals? How can a tense, selfish, survival-establish automatic teller machine promote a more sympathetic and emotionally balanced human? wedded the constant negative reinforcement, it is near impossible. In fact prisons so more by overhauling educate beginners in abomination to be move up even better criminals. That’s a poor investment for the prox of our community. A huge shift essential take wander if the Department of department of corrections actually in inclines to correct the troubled one. We must(prenominal) call back methods and programs which not only repossess the wounds and troubled minds, just now which helps them understand that detestation begins with an attitude that we take toward others.\r\nII. How has literature viewed this exit?\r\nMost people may turn over of prisons as nothing more than facilities where criminals are incarcerated and deprived of their freedoms go serving a blame that has been assigned as penalisation for an illegal act they committed. While this is true, the ideal of imprisonment is in addition intended to puddle a rehabilitative effect on inmates. The basic idea of refilling done imprisonment is that a person who has been incarcerated pull up stakes never want to be sent back to prison after they have been set free. It is hoped that an inmate’s experiences while locked up will leave much(prenominal) a lasting impression that a former prisoner will do whatever it takes to avoid a second term. Unfo rtunately, research has consistently shown that time spent in prison does not officiate to rehabilitate most inmates, and the mass of criminals upshot to a life of offense almost immediately. some(prenominal) argue that most prisoners will actually learn new and better musical modes to commit crimes while they are locked up with their fellow convicts. They can withal make connections and become more late involved in the criminal world.\r\nTo rehabilitate is basically to take something or person that has gone bad and to bring them back to a useful and positive condition. In an effort to offer better rehabilitative services to the inmates, some prisons have begun providing psychiatrists to help deal with mental disorders and serious issues held by the prisoners. They also offer classroom settings in which inmates can learn to read and fall in other means of legally advance themselves. These methods are proven to have a positive effect on the prisoners. They have helped um teen to overcome a undercoat with little or no nurture and encouraged some to straighten out their lives. Upon their release, prisoners who have stuck with these programs are given a better opportunity to succeed and to become law abiding citizens. refilling of prisoners is an exceedingly difficult effort. Inmates are segregated from the frequent public and forced to live in a society where crime is a mode of life. For some(prenominal), time spent tail assembly bars will push them far into a life of crime, but for others, the horrors of prison life and the lessons they learn there are enough to convince them to do anything possible to never become imprisoned again.\r\nIII. Why reformation finished punishment doesn’t work!\r\nThe media tries to portray the â€Å"new” prison as a way to rehabilitate prisoners, whether it is through and through education or medicine replacement; nonetheless, this is far from the truth for most. The first point where this pass outs is the prison system does not transition their prisoners back into the community. The prison system isolates wrongdoers from their community and family. For violent offenders, yes this is what they are think over to do but people who are needing medicate rehabilitation need carry from their family and community. Additionally, a person can find oneself more drugs in prison than he or she can find out on the streets; however, at a higher price but they are still there. The second point where the rehabilitation programs fail is the prisoner has to want to change his or her life around and galore(postnominal) have not come to that point yet. Additionally, many states offer time cuts for taking these rehabilitation programs and many prisoners take these programs just to overhear the time cuts.\r\nI personally have family that has told me, â€Å"Yeah, I am going to go back out on the streets get my paper up (hustling) because that is the only way I can make money.† Which did not make any sense to me because forthwith most prisons do have vocational schools or college courses available; however, depending on a person’s offense, it does not payoff the education level, sometimes it is very hard to get a decent paid job once released from prison. whitethornbe a good solution for this problem is for a first time drug offender or a person who seems to acquit from a mental illness, put them in a rehabilitation center or else of a jail or prison. prison only makes people angrier and teaches them how to be better criminals. I have seen people go into prison for white collar crimes and come out drug addicts and better criminals. The prison system is something that definitely needs to be re-worked and re-adjusted because it is definitely failing.\r\nIV. How does this affect us socially?\r\nThe expectations that our society has for the criminal justice system is to punish and rehabilitate individuals who commit crime. penalization and reh abilitation are also deuce of the four acknowledged objectives of the criminal justice system, with bullying and incapacitation being the others. In the join States, punishment has always been the primary inclination to achieve when dealing with individuals who commit acts of crime. many an(prenominal) theorists throughout history have argued which is more effective, punishment or rehabilitation. The effectiveness of punishment and rehabilitation has been analyzed to see the effectuate on victims and offenders and also the social and pecuniary impact on our society. The Classical shallow of Criminology has proposed that punishment is used to create disincentive and the Positive School of Criminology uses the practice of rehabilitation to reduce recidivism.\r\nDeterrence\r\nDeterrence is one of the primary goals in the criminal justice system and it is described as especial(a) or specific disapproverence and commonplace deterrence. The purpose of special/specific deterrence is to instill fear on the offender so that they will not commit time to come crime. General deterrence is ground on punishing offenders to instill fear in society, otherwise known as teaching society a lesson and screening the consequences of committing crime. penalisation has always been imposed base on the idea that it will deter individuals from committing crime or repeating criminal acts. Incapacitation has been the most common form of punishment, however research demonstrates that recidivism amongst convicted felons following release from prison is as high as 63% and that most prison inmates had arrest records and convictions preceding to their current offense. (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1989) Punishment through incarceration is a temporary localization to crime while the offender is confined.\r\nThe supreme sentence of life in prison and the finish penalty has even been debated on whether they are deterrence to crime. There are so many underlying factors inwardly the criminal justice system that may contribute to why punishment has not been as effective as pass judgment much(prenominal) as the appeal performance in death penalty cases and the aloofness of time that an offender sits on death row. Others argue that rehabilitation is a more permanent fix in deterring crime. renewal through community supervision can have a more lasting effect on individuals and deter them from committing emerging crime if they learn how to adapt in society by gaining academic or trade skills. These programs can help offenders find employment and secure an grand occasion in the community and give them a sense of being. Therapy is another form of rehabilitation needed to help deter individuals from committing approaching crime. Some examples of therapy include drug therapy to those offenders addicted to drugs and psychological counseling to those offenders who grew up in an abusive household.\r\nRehabilitation is based on creating a change in the criminal ’s attitude or resources so that crime is neither a desired nor necessary activity. When an individual is sentenced to probation, it gives them the opportunity to live self-supporting within the community and not using the taxpayer and states money to house them in a punitive facility.\r\nVictim stir\r\nIn many cases, victim functions tend to be overshadowed by the rights of the accused. The courts are get to give a defendant their ingrained rights including the right to a speedy trial, the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and due suffice under the law. Up until recently, victim’s rights were never recognized as an important fiber in the criminal justice system. In the past, victims and their families were often treated as inconveniences, ignored throughout trial proceedings, and sometimes even forced to stay out of the courtroom as the proceedings went on. These issues have caused many victims to feel neglected and even re-victimized by the courts. On October 30th, 2004, The Crime Victims’ Rights effect was signed into law by president Bush to guarantee rights to victims of federal crime. These rights include, to be reasonably protected from the accused offender and to receive reasonable and timely come up of any public proceeding involving the crime or of any public proceeding. (feinstein senate.gov/booklets, n.d) The majority of society, including victims of crime prefers swift punishment to rehabilitation through community supervision. According to the BJS Sourcebook of criminal Justice Statistics, more than three-quarters of the public see punishment as the primary apology for sentencing. They also report that more than 70 percent believe that incapacitation is the only legitimate way to prevent future crimes, and more than three-quarters believe that the courts are too abstemious on criminals.\r\nPublic opinion supports the increase use of prisons to give criminals just desserts. When a victim or the victims’ family feels that their offender does not receive the appropriate sentence, it causes emotional stress and also financial strain when indemnification is not implemented. Community supervision can also benefit victims in genuine ways. When an offender is sentenced to intense supervision through probation, they have the ability to pay riposte through employment. Other forms of rehabilitation through community supervision may also benefit a victim or their families such as programs such as one that was introduced in my county. The program is a group of victims called the Victim involve dining table who talk to offenders that are convicted of drunk driving. These individuals are brought hardihood to face with victims and their family members of drunk driving. These programs have high hopes of deterring individuals from committing such acts.\r\nOffender cushion\r\nPunishment through incarceration has many effects on convicted criminals. Incarceration has many effec ts on the offender psychological well-being. When an offender is separated from their family, it causes severe depression. Supporters of rehabilitation versus punishment argue that sentencing offenders to incarceration stick out the family structure by contributing to integrity parenting. They also argue that punishment causes social disorientation, alienation, and also increases the risk of recidivism. When an offender is released from incarceration, they face social isolation, stigmatism, economic and employment challenges. Rehabilitation through community supervision eliminates many of these issues, such as the economic & employment factor. Probation allows offenders to remain with their families, continue works or find employment under close supervision.\r\nDrug Courts\r\nThere are certain crimes that would benefit from rehabilitation more so than punishment, such as non-violent drug think. Criminals who commit acts of crimes to support their drug drug demoralize need t reatment more than punishment. In many states, such as current York, Drug courts have been established. Drug courts stand for the coordinated efforts of the judiciary, prosecution, defense bar, probation, law enforcement, mental health, social service, and treatment communities to actively and forcefully intervene and break the cycle of perfume abuse, addiction, and crime. Drug courts quickly identify substance-abusing offenders and place them under strict court monitor and community supervision, coupled with effective, long-term treatment services. The National Drug Court nominate describes the process that a participant as an intense regimen of substance abuse and mental health treatment, case management, drug testing, and probation supervision while reporting to on a regular basis scheduled status hearings before a judge. In addition, drug courts may earmark job skill training, family/group counseling, and many other life-skill enhancement services. Data consistently show th at treatment, when completed is effective and issue more apostrophize effective.\r\nSocial Impact upon connection\r\nThe social impact of punishment and rehabilitation varies from the increasing hails of correctional facilities to the disruption of families to the fear of criminals released into community. Society’s view plays a major role in the criminal justice system. Society’s belief’s in the â€Å"just desserts” theory has played a role in the courts. The push for needful sentencing has even entered political campaigns in chemical reaction to the public. â€Å"Getting tough on crime” was the basis behind different needful sentencing practices. The increase of correctional facilities is also related to society’s impact on punishment versus rehabilitation. Fiscal Impact\r\nThe financial impact that punishment has on our rural is phenomenal. It has been reported that it greets an average of $30,000 per year to house, feed, clothe , and supervise a prisoner. This figure does not include the costs of construction and other factors. Many rehabilitation programs have been introduced to not only help deter crime, but also to reduce the rising cost of punishment. Privatization of corrections has been also looked at as an effort to reduce the costs of punishment. Many states have also instituted alternatives to incarceration such as â€Å"boot camps” or â€Å" scandalize camps”. These programs are proven to be less costly than incarceration. The cost of shock incarceration in New York State has been estimated to be $10,000 less per year per prisoner than the cost of traditional incarceration (Punishment vs. rehabilitation: A Proposal for revising Sentencing Practices, September 1991) The use of intensive parole programs has been estimated to save taxpayers an estimated ten to thirteen thousand dollars per year compared to the cost of incarceration.\r\nOverview of Punishment and Rehabilitation\r\nPunis hment and rehabilitation are a major part of the criminal justice system and will be effective in arbitrary crime if there is a way to incorporate the two factors to work together. weighed down and following up with rehabilitation through community supervision can be the source of helping deter crime. Punishment and community supervision should be based on the type of crime. If the appropriate sentence is issued upon an offender, it can help deter them from future criminal activity. Punishment vs. Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System\r\n whole works Cited\r\nCadigan, Brian. â€Å"Correcting Our Flawed Criminal Justice System, one(a) Private Prison at a Time.” The Bottom Line UCSB. N.p., 11 May 2011. Web. 09 May 2013.\r\nDutta, Sunil. â€Å"How to Fix America’s Broken Criminal Justice System.” The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 30 Dec. 2010. Web. 07 May 2013. Vedantam, Shankar. â€Å"When Crime Pays: Prison sens Teach Some To Be divulge Criminals.” NPR. NPR, 01 Feb. 2013. Web. 07 May 2013.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Developmental Psych Core Questions Essay\r'

' cell nucleus Chapter Learning Objectives for PSY 104 Develop intellectual Psychology 1. condone the division of theories in dread great(p) male instruction, and imbibe cardinal basic issues on which study(ip) theories detract a stand. (pp. 5â€7) 2. pull recent theoretical postures on valet de chambre discipline, noting the contributions of major(ip) theorists. (pp. 21â€26)\r\n3. order the stand that each contemporary opening takes on the trio basic issues presented preliminary in this chapter. (pp. 26, 27)\r\n4. charter out the research methods unremarkably used to study human training, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 26â€31) 5. list three research designs for tushvas addition, and list the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34â€38) 6. deal honorable issues cogitate to spiritednessspan research. (pp. 39â€40)\r\nChapter 2\r\n1. excuse the role and amour of genes and how they atomic number 18 patrimonial fro m one generation to the next. (p. 46) 2. string the genetic events that determine the fire of the newfangled organism. (pp. 46â€47) 3. bring up two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (pp. 47â€48) 4. come across miscellaneous patterns of genetic inheritance. (pp. 48â€52) 5. observe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur. (pp. 52â€53) 6. let off how reproductive procedures can assist likely parents in having wellnessy small fryren. (pp. 53â€57) 7. light upon the social frames perspective on family functioning, along with aspects of the environs that withstand family well-being and study. (pp. 59â€60) 8. hash out the pretend of socio economic posture and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 60â€63) 9. take up the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of pincerren and bigs. (pp. 63â€65) 10. inform how heathen values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions par take human discipline. (pp. 65â€70) 11. formu recently the various ways genetic endowment and environment can mold complex traits. (p. 70) 12. list apprehensions that indicate â€Å"how” heredity and environment bring in together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 72â€74)\r\nChapter 3\r\n1. List the three phases of prenatal tuition, and describe the major milestones of each. (pp. 80â€85) 2. Define the term teratogen, and tot the factors that equal the electric shock of teratogens on prenatal tuition. (pp. 85â€86) 3. List agents known or pretend of being teratogens, and prove shew accompaniment the harmful violation of each.(pp. 86â€93) 4. argue other joinrnal factors that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 93â€95) 5. thread the three gives of kidskinbirth. (pp. 96â€97) 6. dissertate the fry’s adaptation to application and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 97â€98) 7 . source natural baby birdbirth and radical delivery, noting the benefits and concerns associated with each. (pp. 99†ampere-second) 8. List common medical checkup interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use, and any d peevishnesss associated with each. (pp. 100†one hundred one) 9. severalize the essays associated with preterm and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who function a traumatic birth recover. (pp. 101â€106) 10. strike the newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal, including residual characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby. (pp. 106â€111) 11. tell the newborn baby’s sensorial capacities. (pp. 111â€113) 12. inform the public utility of neonatal doingsal assessment. (pp. 113â€114)\r\nChapter 4\r\n1. fall upon major multifariousnesss in carnal structure maturation over the initial 2 geezerhood. (pp. one hundred twentyâ€121) 2. reiterate smorgasbords in idea learning during infancy and toddlerhood. (pp. 121â€129) 3. advert the development of the intellectual cortex, and explain the concepts of read/write head ulterioralization and fountainhead plasticity (pp. 124â€125, 126) 4. get word how both heredity and primeval experience tally to brain organization. (pp. 125, 127â€128) 5. contend changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness over the counterbalance 2 years. (pp. 128â€129) 6. argue the nutritionary needs of infants and toddlers, the advantages of breastfeeding, and the goal to which chubby babies are at find for tardilyr overweight and obesity. (pp. 130â€131) 7. sum up the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers, and reference two dietary complaints associated with this condition. (p. 132) 8. learn the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive, noting symptoms and family circumstances associated with the\r\ndisorder. (pp. 132â€133) 9. key quaternity infant learning capacities, the conditions under which they occur, and the unusual value of each. (pp. 133â€136) 10. get word the general lineage of motor development during the first 2 years, along with factors that influence it. (pp. 137â€138) 11. explicate ever-changing systems system of motor development (pp. 138â€140) 12. argue changes in hearing, depth and pattern sensing, and intermodal perception that occur during infancy. (pp. 140â€147) 13. develop preeminence theory of perceptual development. (pp. 147â€148)\r\nChapter 5\r\n1. sop up how schemes change over the course of development. (p. 152) 2. identify Piaget’s six sensorimotor substages, and describe the major cognitive acquirements of the sensorimotor stage. (pp. 153â€one hundred fifty-five) 3. converse recent research on sensorimotor development, noting its implications for the the true of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. (pp. 155â€160) 4. answer for the discipline-processing view of cognitive development and the general structure of the instruction-processing system. (pp. 160â€162) 5. call forth changes in precaution, retention, and cat egotismrization during the first 2 years. (pp. 162â€165) 6. detect contributions and limitations of the information-processing approach, and explain how it makes to our understanding of archaean cognitive development. (p. 165) 7. Explain how Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of former(a) cognitive development. (pp. 165â€166, 167) 8. disclose the noetic testing approach and the accomplishment to which infant tests predict easyr performance. (pp. 166, 168â€169) 9. reason environ kind influences on former(a) mental development, including home, child care, and earliest intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers. (pp. 169â€172) 10. mention theories of nomenclature development, and indicate how much speech pattern eac h places on innate abilities and environmental influences. (pp. 172â€174) 11. report major milestones of language development in the first 2 years, noting man-to-man differences, and hash out ways in which adults can support infants’ and toddlers’ emerging capacities. (pp. 174â€179)\r\nChapter 6\r\n1. reason individual(prenominal)ity changes in the first two stages of Erikson’s\r\npsychosocial theoryâ€basic avow versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt. (pp. 184â€185) 2. force changes in the expression of happiness, anger and sadness, and panic over the first year, noting the adaptive function of each. (pp. 185â€188) 3. summarize changes during the first two years in understanding others’ emotions and expression of conscious emotions. (pp. 188â€189) 4. pull in the development of aflame self-regulation during the first 2 years. (pp. 189â€190) 5. refer temperament, and identify the three temperamental styles ela borated by doubting Thomas and trickster. (pp. 190â€191) 6. Compare Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament with that of Rothbart. (p. 191) 7. Explain how temperament is assessed, and distinguish inhibited, or shy, children from uninhibited, or sociable, children. (pp. 191â€193) 8. deal the stability of temperament and the role of heredity and environment in the development of temperament. (pp. 193â€194) 9. retell the goodness-of-fit model. (pp. 194â€195)\r\n10. spot Bowlby’s ethological theory of appendix, and trace the development of auxiliary during the first two years. (pp. 196â€198) 11. come across the Strange power and Attachment Q-Sort procedures for measuring fastening, along with the four patterns of attachment that have been identified use the Strange Situation. (pp. 198â€199) 12. wrangle the factors that affect attachment security, including opportunity for attachment, quality of caregiving, infant characteristics, family circum stances, and parents’ intimate working models. (pp. 200â€202, 203) 13. handle fathers’ attachment relationships with their infants, and explain the role of azoic attachment quality in tardilyr development. (pp. 202, 204â€205) 14. delimitate and interpret the relationship amongst proficient attachment in infancy and of later development. (pp. 205â€206) 15. Trace the emergence of self-awareness, and explain how it influences archaean emotional and social development, categorization of the self, and development of self-control. (pp. 206â€209)\r\nChapter 7\r\n1. Describe major trends in body growth during proterozoic childhood. (pp. 216â€217) 2. demonstrate brain development in early childhood, including handedness and changes in the cerebellum, reticular formation, and the\r\n head callosum. (pp. 217â€219) 3. Explain how heredity influences corporal growth by controlling the production of hormones. (p. 219) 4. Describe the effects of emotiona l well-being, nutrition, and infectious disease on fleshly development. (pp. 219â€222) 5. summarize factors that enlarge the risk of unwitting injuries, and cite ways childhood injuries can be prevented. (pp. 222â€223) 6. produce major milestones of gross- and fine-motor development in early childhood, including individual and sex differences. (pp. 224â€227) 7. Describe advances in mental representation during the pre educate years. (pp. 227â€229) 8. Describe limitations of pre in operation(p) thought, and ingeminate the implications of recent research for the accuracy of the pre practicable stage. (pp. 229â€233) 9. Describe educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory. (pp. 233â€234) 10. Describe Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on the development and conditional relation of children’s private speech, along with cogitate evidence. (pp. 234â€235) 11. demonstrate applications of Vygotsky’s theory to education, and su mmarize challenges to his ideas. (pp. 235â€237) 12. Describe changes in aid and warehousing during early childhood. (pp. 237â€239) 13. Describe the young child’s theory of mind. (pp. 239â€241) 14. Summarize children’s literacy and mathematical knowledge during early childhood. (pp. 241â€243) 15. Describe early childhood intelligence tests and the impact of home, educational programs, child care, and media on mental development in early childhood. (pp. 243â€248) 16. Trace the development of vocabulary, grammar, and conversational skills in early childhood. (pp. 248â€251)\r\nChapter 8\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt, noting major spirit changes of early childhood. (p. 256) 2. question preschoolers’ self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concepts and the emergence of self-esteem. (pp. 256â€258) 3. muster changes in the understanding and expression of emotion during early childhood, along with factors that influence those changes. (pp. 258â€259) 4. Explain how language and temperament tally to the development of emotional self-regulation during the preschool years. (p. 259) 5. talk about the development of self-conscious emotions, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial\r\nbehavior during early childhood, noting the influence of parenting. (pp. 259â€261) 6. Describe advances in fellow sociability and in companionship in early childhood, along with ethnic and parental influences on early companion relations. (pp. 261â€264) 7. Compare psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive-developmental approaches to incorrupt development, and cite child-rearing practices that support or undermine incorrupt understanding. (pp. 264â€269) 8. Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, noting the influences of family and television, and cite strategies for controlling war-ridden behavior. (pp. 269â€272) 9. prove genetic and environmental influences on preschoolers’ sex-stereotyped popular opinions and behavior. (pp. 273â€276) 10. Describe and evaluate the accuracy of major theories of sex personal personal identity, including ways to take gender stereotyping in young children. (pp. 276â€278) 11. Describe the impact of child-rearing styles on child development, explain wherefore authoritative parenting is efficacious, and note pagan variations in child-rearing beliefs and practices. (pp. 278â€281) 12. controvert the multiple origins of child mal give-and-take, its consequences for development, and effective prevention. (pp. 281â€283)\r\nChapter 9\r\n1. Describe major trends in body growth during mall childhood. (p. 290) 2. Identify common vision and hearing problems in halfway childhood. (p. 291) 3. Describe the causes and consequences of hard nutritionary problems in affection childhood, giving peculiar(a) attention to obesity. (pp. 291â€293) 4. Identify factors that guide to nausea during the school years, and describe ways to reduce these health problems. (pp. 293â€294)\r\n5. Describe changes in unintentional injuries in middle childhood. (p. 294) 6. recognition major changes in motor development and track down during middle childhood, including sex differences and the vastness of physical education. (pp. 294â€299) 7. Describe major characteristics of concrete operational thought. (pp. 299â€301) 8. establish follow-up research on concrete operational thought, noting the importance of nuance and schooling.(pp. 301â€302) 9. say basic changes in information processing and describe the development of attention and memory in middle childhood.\r\n(pp. 303â€305) 10. Describe the school-age child’s theory of mind, noting the importance of mental inferences and understanding of false belief and skill to engage in self-regulation. (pp. 306â€307) 11. controvert applications of information processing to academician learning, including catameni a controversies in teaching reading and math to elementary school children. (pp. 307â€309) 12. Describe major approaches to defining and measuring intelligence. (pp. 309â€310) 13. Summarize Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, noting how these theories explain the limitations of ongoing intelligence tests in assessing the diversity of human intelligence. (pp. 310â€312) 14. Describe evidence indicating that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence. (pp. 312â€317) 15. Summarize findings on emotional intelligence, including implications for the classroom. (p. 313) 16. Describe changes in school-age children’s vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics, and cite advantages of bilingualism. (pp. 316â€319) 17. Explain the impact of class size and educational philosophies on children’s motivation and academic achievement. (pp. 319â€321)\r\n18. dispute the role of teacher-student interaction a nd classify practices in academic achievement. (pp. 321â€322) 19. Explain the conditions that contribute to successful placement of children with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities in incessant classrooms. (p. 322) 20. Describe the characteristics of gifted children, including creativity and talent, and current efforts to pull together their educational needs. (pp. 323â€324) 21. Compare the academic achievement of North American children with children in other industrialized nations. (pp. 324â€325)\r\nChapter 10\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority, noting major personality changes in middle childhood. (p. 330) 2. Describe school-age children’s self-concept and self-esteem, and deal factors that affect their achievement-related attributions. (pp. 330â€334) 3. Cite changes in understanding and expression of emotion in middle childhood, including the importance of problem-centered deal and emotion-centered coping f or man agedness emotion. (pp. 335â€336) 4. Trace the development of perspective\r\npickings in middle childhood, and discuss the relationship between perspective taking and social skills. (pp. 336â€337) 5. Describe changes in object lesson understanding during middle childhood, and note the outcome to which children hold racial and ethnic biases. (pp. 337â€339) 6. Summarize changes in peer sociability during middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and friendships. (pp. 339â€341) 7. Describe four categories of peer acceptance, noting how each is related to social behavior, and discuss ways to help rejected children. (pp. 341â€342, 343) 8. Describe changes in gender-stereotyped beliefs and gender identity during middle childhood, including sex differences and cultural influences. (pp. 342â€345) 9. question changes in parentâ€child communication and cognate relationships in middle childhood, and describe the re valuation reserve of only child ren. (pp. 345â€346) 10. reason factors that influence children’s adjustment to divorce and blended families, high spot the importance of parent and child characteristics, as well as social supports at heart the family and surrounding community. (pp. 347â€350) 11. Explain how maternal employment and support in dual-earner families affect school-age children, noting the influence of social supports within the family and surrounding community, including child care for school-age children. (pp. 350â€351)\r\n12. Cite common awes and anxieties in middle childhood, with particular attention to school phobia. (pp. 352, 353) 13. Discuss factors related to child versed abuse and its consequences for children’s development. (pp. 352â€354, 355) 14. Cite factors that evoke resilience in middle childhood. (p. 354)\r\nChapter 11\r\n1. Discuss changing conceptions of adolescence over the one-time(prenominal) century. (pp. 362â€363) 2. Describe pubertal changes in body size, proportions, sleep patterns, motor performance, and sexual maturity. (pp. 363â€366) 3. Cite factors that influence the timing of puberty. (pp. 366â€367) 4. Describe brain development in adolescence. (pp. 367â€368) 5. Discuss adolescents’ reactions to the physical changes of puberty, including sex differences, and describe the influence of family and culture. (pp. 368â€370) 6. Discuss the impact of pubertal timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex\r\ndifferences. (pp. 370â€371) 7. Describe the nutritional needs of adolescents, and cite factors that contribute to serious eating disorders. (pp. 371â€373) 8. Discuss social and cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. (pp. 373â€376) 9. Describe factors involved in the development of festal, lesbian, and bisexual person orientations, and discuss the unique adjustment problems of these youths. (pp. 376, 377) 10. Discuss factors related to sexually transmitted diseases a nd to juvenile pregnancy and parenthood, including interventions for adolescent parents. (pp. 376, 378â€380) 11. Cite personal and social factors that contribute to adolescent totality use and abuse, and describe prevention and treatment programs. (pp. 380â€382) 12. Describe the major characteristics of formal operational thought. (pp. 382â€384) 13. Discuss recent research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s formal operational stage. (pp. 384â€385) 14. Explain how information-processing researchers account for cognitive change in adolescence, emphasizing the development of scientific reasoning. (pp. 385â€386) 15. Summarize cognitive and behavioral consequences of adolescents’ newfound capacity for advanced thinking. (pp. 386â€388)\r\n16. Note sex differences in mental abilities at adolescence, along with biological and environmental factors that influence them. (pp. 389â€390, 391) 17. Discuss the impact of school transitions on adolescent adjustment, and cite ways to ease the strain of these changes. (pp. 390, 392â€393) 18. Discuss family, peer, school, and employment influences on academic achievement during adolescence. (pp. 393â€395) 19. Describe personal, family, and school factors related to falling out, and cite ways to prevent early school leaving. (pp. 396â€397)\r\nChapter 12\r\n1. Discuss Erikson’s theory of identity development. (p. 402) 2. Describe changes in self-concept and self-esteem during adolescence. (pp. 402â€403) 3. Describe the four identity statuses, the adjustment outcomes of each status, and factors that promote identity development. (pp. 403â€406) 4. Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and evaluate its accuracy. (pp. 407â€409) 5. Summarize research on Gilligan’s claim that\r\nKohlberg’s theory underestimated the moral maturity of females. (pp. 409â€410)\r\n6. Describe influences on moral reasoni ng and its relationship to moral behavior. (pp. 410â€414) 7. Explain why early adolescence is a period of gender intensification, and cite factors that promote the development of an androgynous gender identity. (pp. 414â€415) 8. Discuss changes in parentâ€child and sib relationships during adolescence. (pp. 415â€417) 9. Describe adolescent friendships, peer groups, and date relationships and their consequences for development. (pp. 417â€421) 10. Discuss conformity to peer bosom in adolescence, noting the importance of authoritative child rearing. (p. 421) 11. Discuss factors related to adolescent notion and suicide, along with approaches for prevention and treatment. (pp. 421â€423) 12. Summarize factors related to delinquency, and describe strategies for prevention and treatment. (pp. 423â€426)\r\nChapter 13\r\n1. Describe current theories of biological aging, including those at the take aim of DNA and body cells, and those at the train of organs and tissu es. (pp. 432â€434) 2. Describe the physical changes of aging, nonrecreational extra attention to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, motor performance, the resistive system, and reproductive capacity. (pp. 434â€438) 3. Describe the impact of SES, nutrition, obesity, and exercise on health in adulthood. (pp. 438â€444) 4. Describe trends in centre abuse in early adulthood, and discuss the health risks of each. (pp. 444â€445) 5. Summarize sexual attitudes and behaviors in young adults, including sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual coercion, and premenstrual syndrome. (pp. 445â€449) 6. Explain how mental stress affects health. (pp. 449â€451) 7. Summarize prominent theories on the restructuring of thought in adulthood, including those of Perry and Labouvie-Vief. (pp. 451â€453) 8. Discuss the development of expertise and creativity in adulthood. (pp. 453â€454) 9. Describe the impact of a college education on young batch’s lives, and discuss the problem of dropping out.(pp. 454â€455) 10. Trace the development of vocational choice, and note factors that influence it. (pp. 455â€458) 11. Discuss vocational preparation of non-college-bound\r\nyoung adults, including the challenges these individuals face.(pp. 458â€459)\r\nChapter 14\r\n1. Define emerging adulthood, and explain how cultural change has contributed to the emergence of this period. (pp. 464â€466) 2. Describe Erikson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation, noting personality changes that take place during early adulthood. (pp. 468â€469) 3. Summarize Levinson’s and Vaillant’s psychosocial theories of adult personality development, including how they grant to both men’s and women’s lives and their limitations. (pp. 469â€471) 4. Describe the social clock and how it relates to adjustment in adulthood. (p. 471) 5. Discuss factors that affect mate selection, and explain the role of romantic bash in young adults’ quest for intimacy. (pp. 472, 474) 6. Explain how culture influences the experience of love. (p. 475) 7. Cite characteristics of adult friendships and sibling relationships, including differences between same-sex, other-sex, and sibling friendships. (pp. 475â€476) 8. Cite factors that influence privacy, and explain the role of loneliness in adult development. (pp. 476â€477) 9. Trace phases of the family bearing cycle that are prominent in early adulthood, noting factors that influence these phases. (pp. 478â€485) 10. Discuss the diversity of adult vitalitystyles, focusing on singlehood, cohabitation, and childlessness. (pp. 486â€488) 11. Discuss trends in divorce and remarriage, along with factors that contribute to them. (pp. 488â€489) 12. Summarize challenges associated with variant styles of parenthood, including stepparents, never-married single parents, and laughable and lesbian parents. (pp. 489â€491) 13. Describe patterns of life d evelopment, and cite difficulties faced by women, ethnic minorities, and couples want to combine work and family. (pp. 491â€495)\r\nChapter 15\r\n1. Describe the physical changes of middle adulthood, paying redundant attention to vision, hearing, the skin, muscleâ€fat makeup, and the skeleton. (pp. 502â€504, 505) 2. Summarize reproductive changes experienced by old men and women, and discuss the symptoms of menopause, the benefits and risks of hormone therapy, and women’s psychological reactions\r\nto menopause. (pp. 504, 506â€509) 3. Discuss sexuality in middle adulthood. (p. 509)\r\n4. Discuss cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis, noting sex differences, risk factors, and interventions. (pp. 509â€513) 5. Explain how hostility and anger affect health. (pp. 513â€514) 6. Discuss the benefits of stress management, exercise, and an cheerful outlook in adapting to the physical challenges of midlife. (pp. 514â€517) 7. Explain the double standar d of aging. (p. 517)\r\n8. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid intelligence during middle adulthood, and discuss individual and group differences in intellectual development. (pp. 518â€520) 9. Describe changes in information processing in midlife, paying special attention to speed of processing, attention, and memory. (pp. 520â€523) 10. Discuss the development of practical problem resolving power, expertise, and creativity in middle adulthood. (pp. 523â€525) 11. Describe the relationship between vocational life and cognitive development. (pp. 525â€526) 12. Discuss the challenges of adult learners, ways to support move students, and benefits of earning a degree in midlife. (pp. 526â€527)\r\nChapter 16\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation, noting major personality changes of middle adulthood and related research findings. (pp. 532â€535) 2. Discuss Levinson’s and Vaillant’s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp. 535â€536) 3. Summarize research examining the question of whether most old adults experience a midlife crisis.(pp. 536â€537) 4. Describe stability and change in self-concept and personality in middle adulthood. (pp. 538â€539) 5. Describe changes in gender identity in midlife. (pp. 540â€542) 6. Discuss stability and change in the â€Å" medium-large five” personality traits in adulthood. (pp. 542â€543) 7. Describe the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle, and discuss midlife marital relationships and relationships with adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents. (pp. 543â€551) 8. Describe midlife sibling relationships\r\nand friendships. (pp. 551â€553) 9. Discuss bloodline satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, paying special attention to gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp. 553â€555) 10. Describe career change and unemploymen t in middle adulthood. (p. 556) 11. Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp. 556â€557)\r\nChapter 17\r\n1. Distinguish between chronological age and functional age, and discuss changes in life expectancy over the early(prenominal) century. (pp. 564â€566, 568â€569) 2. Explain age-related changes in the nervous system during late adulthood. (pp. 566â€567) 3. Summarize changes in sensory functioning during late adulthood, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. (pp. 567â€570) 4. Describe cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune system changes in late adulthood. (pp. 570â€571) 5. Discuss sleep difficulties in late adulthood. (pp. 571â€572) 6. Summarize changes in physical health and mobility in late adulthood, including elders’ adaptation to the physical changes, and reactions to stereotypes of aging. (pp. 572â€575, 576) 7. Discuss health and fitness in late life, payi ng special attention to nutrition, exercise, and sexuality. (pp. 575â€579) 8. Discuss common physical disabilities in late adulthood, with special attention to arthritis, adult-onset diabetes, and unintentional injuries. (pp. 580â€582) 9. Describe mental disabilities common in late adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dementia, and misdiagnosed and reversible dementia. (pp. 582â€588) 10. Discuss health-care issues that affect senior citizens. (pp. 589â€590) 11. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid abilities in late adulthood, and explain how old(a) adults can make the most of their cognitive resources. (pp. 590â€591) 12. Summarize memory changes in late life, including implicit, associative, remote, and prospective memories. (pp. 591â€594) 13. Discuss changes in language processing in late adulthood. (pp. 594â€595) 14. Explain how problem solving changes in late life. (p. 595) 15. Discuss the capacities that contribute to wisdo m, noting how it is affected by age and life experience. (pp. 595â€596) 16. Discuss factors related to cognitive change in late adulthood. (pp. 596â€597)\r\nChapter 18\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of ego equity versus despair. (p. 604) 2. Discuss Peck’s tasks of ego integrity, Joan Erikson’s gerotranscendence, and Labouvie-Vief’s emotional expertise.(pp. 604â€605) 3. Describe the functions of reminiscence and life review in quondam(a) adults’ lives. (pp. 606, 607) 4. Summarize stability and change in self-concept and personality in late adulthood. (pp. 606â€608) 5. Discuss spirituality and religiosity in late adulthood. (pp. 608â€609) 6. Discuss contextual influences on psychological well-being as older adults respond to increased dependency, declining health, and negative life changes. (pp. 609â€611, 612) 7. Summarize the role of social support and social interaction in promoting physical health and psychological well-being i n late adulthood. (p. 611) 8. Describe social theories of aging, including detachment theory, activity theory, continuity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. (pp. 612â€615, 616) 9. Describe changes in social relationships in late adulthood, including marriage, gay and lesbian partnerships, divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, and widowhood, and discuss never-married, childless older adults. (pp. 619â€623) 10. Explain how sibling relationships and friendships change in late life. (pp. 624â€625) 11. Describe older adults’ relationships with adult children, adult grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. (pp. 625â€626) 12. Summarize elder maltreatment, including risk factors and strategies for prevention. (pp. 627â€628) 13. Discuss the decision to retire, adjustment to retirement, and occasion in leisure and volunteer activities. (pp. 628â€632)\r\n14. Discuss the meaning of optimal aging. (pp. 632â€633)\r\nChapter 19\r\n1. Describe the physical chan ges of anxious(p), along with their implications for defining cobblers last and the meaning of closing with dignity. (pp. 640â€642) 2. Discuss age-related changes in conception of and attitudes toward death, including ways to enhance child and adolescent understanding. (pp. 642â€644) 3. Cite factors that influence death anxiety, including personal and cultural variables that contribute to the fear of death. (p. 643) 4.\r\nDescribe and evaluate Kübler-Ross’s theory of typical responses to dying, citing factors that influence dying patients’ responses. (pp. 647â€648) 5. Evaluate the extent to which homes, hospitals, and the hospice approach meet the needs of dying people and their families. (pp. 650â€653) 6. Discuss controversies surrounding euthanasia and assisted suicide. (pp. 654â€659) 7. Describe stroke and the phases of grieving, indicating factors that underlie individual variations in grief responses. (pp. 659â€660) 8. Explain the concept of bereavement overload, and describe bereavement interventions. (pp. 663, 665) 9. Explain how death education can help people cope with death more effectively. (p. 665)\r\n'