Monday, March 11, 2019
Conflict Resolution and Mediation Essay
be differences in opinions which of necessity entice to disagreements. deviation exists in families, in the workplace, in churches and schools, in sports, amid neighbors and amongst countries. struggle is defined as an expressed struggle between at least 2 interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, precious resources, and interference from new(prenominal)s in achieving their goals. (Wilmot and Hocker, 2001, p. 11). When there are differences in separate shelters, motivations, ideas and perceptions, appointments arise. How individuals serve up with appointment depends on personal history, family background and other modulates over mavins lifetime. Gender as well as culture influence behavior and perceptions and play an important intention in struggle gag law. Tradition whatevery, fighting has been viewed as a destructive force which was best handled by avoiding, ignoring, or silencing it. on that point is a growing body of literature on the benefits of efficient affair management.Healthy contest is now viewed as a inf all toldible atom in organisational success. The ability to deal usefully with run afoul is critical to creating productive relationships. Although intimately multitude continue to view encroach negatively, it is a necessary fraction to creativity and results in healthier relationships. There are two kinds of conflict, constructive and destructive. Constructive conflict should be support because it malarkys to creative thinking and growth. It results in high performing organizations and to enhanced relationships. pernicious conflict should be eliminated or dealt with immediately. It is costly and does not promote substantiating personal or organizational development. Communication is a key ingredient in conflict resolution. There are various tools available to crash conflict. They include level-headed remedies, arbitration as well as mediation. date resolution skills are learned and when apply, re sult in improved relationships. formation ConflictThere is an element of conflict in almost all relationships. Conflict has also been defined as a affable job in which two or more persons, families, parties, communities, or districts are in disagreement with each other ( Dzurgba, 2006). It occurs on an intrapersonal as well as an interpersonal level. If left unmanaged, conflict preserve lead to hostility, anger, alienation, war, inefficiency, expensive mistakes, legal battles as well as physical violence. There are automobiledinal main conflict resolution stylesthat individuals use depending on the situation. They areAvoiding the Conflict By avoiding the conflict, iodin or more parties pretend there is no problem. Some lessons of avoiding include pretending nothing is vituperate, shutting down or stonewalling. Accommodating integrity fellowship agrees to accommodate the others prayer normally for the sake of keeping the peace. This asshole lead to resentment. Competi tive One party stands his/her ground and competes to secure a win. In the short run, one party wins, exclusively abide lead to serious issues long landmark. flexible twain parties volitioningly enter into a negotiation where each gets something let out of the other, provided n each gets everything they want. Usually the parties negotiate on the larger issues where they check common ground and let go of minor issues. Collaboration Both parties enter into meaningful negotiations towards a win-win solution. This style takes the most courage and involves comprehend to the other party and thinking creatively to resolve the problem without compromising. This is the most successful and admired and respected style.Conflict gag ruleConflict resolution and mediation leads to the reduction of the conflict. Effectively addressing conflict leads to an improvement of relationships and to greater organizational and personal effectiveness. Conflict resolution entails managing stress, managing anger and managing face. When managed well, conflict cornerstone be a catalyst for innovation and creativity, leading to organizational learning. Conflict provides an luck for the best ideas to be shared to improve a situation or a process. Left unmanaged, conflict can render expensive legal consequences as others seek litigation to resolve the conflict. In organizations, it can lead to employee dissatisfaction, expensive turnover, decreased productivity and expensive errors. In families, unmanaged conflict can lead to violence, family dysfunction and divorce.Types of ConflictThere are five types of conflicts, namely relationship, data, have-to doe with, geomorphological and value. Relationship ConflictsRelationship conflicts are personal and result from misperceptions,miscommunication, stereotypes, negative behavior and rumors. It affects the relationship between two people, but can jounce others within the team. Work environments consist of employees from diverse bac kgrounds with very different value systems. There are cultural, gender and generational differences which contribute to relationship conflicts. As a result, miscommunication occurs because of differences in meaning, norms of communication and behavioral expectations. What is perceived as an unremarkable conversation in one culture may be considered untamed and intrusive by another(prenominal) culture. Spouses much take a crap relationship conflicts that lead to divorce if unresolved.Data ConflictsData conflicts a lot occur when two or more individuals are reading data differently. This can lead to awry(p) decisions, but can also lead to major disagreements. The budget conflicts which have let to the sequestration are an example of data conflicts. The Republicans and the Democrats are interpreting the budget poetry differently and coming to very different conclusions regarding what the numbers mean. As a result, they cannot agree on a budget. stake ConflictsInterest conflicts occur when one person is trying to take advantage of another person. This may happen if an employee starts a company that provides the same services as his/her employer. Interest conflicts occur when the boss is dating an employee because that may introduce favouritism and may negatively impact other employees.Structural ConflictsA geomorphological conflict is puddled by the organization. It is not subjective and is not created by peoples viewpoints or perceptions, but rather by limited resources or changes that the people involved have very little control over. An example of a structural conflict is a company that has customers across the world, but only has a customer service center in Ohio. The gross sales force would manage to have all customers served promptly regardless of location, but the service center has regular hours. The company eitherhas to create 24 hour shifts to accommodate its customers or open centers in other countries. honor Conflicts harbor conflicts are di fferences in personal beliefs, preferences or priorities. This occurs between two people or within groups of people. Cultural differences usual result in different value systems which can lead to conflict. Examples of value conflicts in interpersonal relations can be a person who likes meat verses somebody who is vegetarian, or, a liberal Democrat verses a conservative Republican. Each individual develops a value system based on culture, personality and the parliamentary procedure they grow up in. There is no right or wrong in value systems, just a difference in opinion. Value conflicts are subjective because they are based on how people sapidity about each other or the situation. They are very backbreaking to effectively resolve.Intrapersonal and Interpersonal PowerPower plays a critical role in interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts and disputes. There are many forms of condition. The role of force-out in a conflict intensifies as the balance of agent shifts. In the work environment, the cause imbalance often exacerbates a conflict and often leads to resentment or anger. Power imbalance changes the communication styles used by the parties in a conflict. In conflict or dispute, one or more types of creator may be used by the parties in the attempt to resolve the conflict. People in a high power get may not use their power to influence a decision out of guilt. In a conflict, one party usually possesses more power than the other. Real or perceived power imbalances hire it difficult to resolve a conflict to everyones satisfaction. Power can be structural or personal. The extent to which one party can impose their will on another affects how the dispute is resolved. Power coin depends on the value placed on particular resources by the other party in the relationship. If one has what others fatality, they are in a the right mode plaza and have more power currency. As needs change, the power currency may be more of less valuable. Just like actual currency, the value of the currency fluctuates and is situational. Interpersonal power currencies are1. imaginativeness control Often associated with a position within an organization and can include financial, information, equipment and rules and regulations. When a citizen visits the social security office to get deadening benefits, the government holds the power for the decision to revere or not approve the benefits. The citizen has very little power and the government has the resources. 2. Interpersonal linkages This is associated with someones position in the larger system. This is highly dependent on who you hump and the relationships one has to make things happen. The Secretary of State is in a position to resolve the Mid-east conflict based on the interpersonal linkages he/she has with some(prenominal) Israel and Egypt. 3. Communication skills Listening skills, leadership skills and the ability to effectively perish is a power currency. Preachers have the ability to c ommunicate a message to their plication and get them to rally around a particular issue.They are often called upon to mediate disputes because of their ability to listen, be empathetic to both parties and effectively communicate both viewpoints and negotiate a resolution. 4. Expertise skills When one has a special(a) skill or knowledge that others find valuable, he is in a position of influence. A pilot, a surgeon or a car mechanic all possess special skills that put them in power positions during certain disputes. Power imbalances disproportionally benefit the powerful party. Power generally fall into three categories, designated power, distributive power and integrative power. Designated power is often referred to as positional power and is as a result of a position or office held. A parent, manager, teacher or policeman has power that comes from their position. Distributive power is the power over or against the other party (Wilmot & Hocker, 2001, p. 103). Integrative or both/ and power comes from two parties working unitedly to achieve a mutually beneficial goal. This power differential has a significant impact on the substance and the process to resolve the conflict. When applied appropriately constructive use of power solves problems, enhances relationships, and balances power (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011, p. 103).Forgiveness and rapprochementThere is a growing body of literature on mercy and reconciliation. Disparate fields such as social and developmental psychology, anthropology,political sciences, religion and legal studies have all been conducting research on kindness and reconciliation. There are many definitions of favor. Forgiveness and reconciliation often hap other efforts to resolve a conflict and heal the relationship. As such, mildness is highly personal and emotional. Kornfield defined it as follows Forgiveness is the hearts capacity to release its grasp on the pains of the past and exhaust itself to go on (Kornfield, 2001, p.236). As sh own in Figure 1, there is a flow of events that lead to reconciliation.The Forgiveness & Reconciliation Cycle for Effective Conflict ResolutionFigure 1Forgiveness is a key ingredient essential for reconciliation and conflict resolution. It is recognized in religion and social science literature as an important element in meliorate conflicts. For healing to occur and normal trusting relationships to be formed, both sides need to stop blaming each other and move past the conflict. An alibi is a catalyst and a key ingredient leading to forgiveness and reconciliation, and in the long run to conflict resolution. While conflict resolution is pore on resolve substantive issues in a dispute, reconciliation focuses on addressing personal and relational issues and restoring relationships. William Faulkner was quoted by journalist Bill Moyers as saying Forgiveness is broad up the idea of a better past (Wilmot and Hocker, 2011, p. 297). Forgiveness is concerned with healing the hurt, dis appointments and sins of the past, and improving relationships in the future.Mediation and Organizational Conflict ResolutionA mediator is defined as a neutral third base party who has no decision-making power regarding the outcome of the mediation (Abigail & Cahn, 2011, p. 197). The advantages of mediation are 1. Cost Mediation is much less expensive than the alternative of either having the situation go unresolved or resolve legally 2. flexibility Mediation can be conducted anywhere as long as it is neutral ground. 3. Informal It can be adapted to accommodate cultural, personal, structural and other differences. 4. Effectiveness Mediated solutions tend to last because the parties come to a mutually agreed solution. 5. Preserves Relationships Parties tend to have stronger long term relationships because they feel they were heard and have the others commitment. Effective organizations have mediation as part of the conflict resolution process. This is an effective way to resolv e conflicts while both parties maintain control and ownership of the issues. closeEffective conflict resolution is important to building productive relationships. The immensity of conflict resolution has been reinforced by the disparate fields focused on studying the subject. Organizations must provide the right structure for effective conflict resolution to be effective. Effective conflict resolution requires a health balance of power and promotes a health organizational culture. When all stakeholders have a voice, decision making is enhanced, engagement improves, and innovation increases. Maintaining a balance of power should be a high priority for any organization to be competitive and reach maximum productivity. Diversity is a consideration when creating conflict resolution processes. Gender, ethnicity and culture have to be considered to create an effective process. Although power is complex and maintaining a balance of power is troubled with difficulty, process design, effec tive communication, and a culture that encourages open dialogue will ensure that all parties effectively negotiate in their own interest to bring about fair outcomes.Archbishop Desmond Tutu who chaired the Truth and Reconciliation bursting charge (TRC) said that there can be no future without forgiveness. Forgiveness is an intrapersonal as well as an interpersonal activity. Forgiving someone can be done with or without the other persons consent, making it a relatively easy process intrapersonal. It is much more complicated interpersonally since it requires another party to either apologize, or accept an apology and forgive. As research is finding, Apology and forgiveness have the potential to shelter reconciliation and encourage peaceful coexistence among groups and nations (Asby et al, 2010, p. 25). Conflict should be treated as an essential ingredient for healthy relationships both at home and at work. In health care organizations such as MaineGeneral Health, empowering employee s with skills to handle conflict was critical to creating a culturewhere employees felt comfortable speaking up (Bullock, 2011, p. 82). By speaking up, the hospital was able to avoid medical errors.ReferencesAbigail, R. A.., & Cahn, D. D. (2011). Managing conflict through communication. 4th Ed. Boston Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 9780205685561 Ashy, M., Mercurio, A. E., & Malley-Morrison, K. (2010, March). Apology, forgiveness, and reconciliation An ecological world view. individualistic Differences Research 8 (1), 17-26 http//proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http//search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct= accepted&db=psyh&AN=2010-05622-003& site=ehost-live Bullock, S. (2011, July/August). Empowering staff with communication. Healthcare Executive 26 (4), 80-82 http//search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/875635837?accountid=28180 Chetkow-Yanoov, B. (1997). Social work approaches to conflict resolution Making fighting obsolete. Binghampton, NY Haworth. Deutsch, M., & Coleman, P. T. (Eds). (2006) . Handbook of conflict resolution (2nd ed.). San Francisco Jossey-Bass. Dingwall, R., & Miller, G. (2002). Lessons from apprize therapy? Some interactional suggestions for family mediators. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 19, 269-287. Dubler, N. N., & Liebman, C. B. (2004). Bioethics mediation A transmit to shaping shared solutions. New York United Hospital Fund. Eddy, W. A. (2003). High conflict personalities Understanding and resolving their costly disputes. San Diego, CA William A. Eddy. Eller, J. (2004). Effective group facilitation in education How to energize meetings and manage difficult groups. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage. Lee, J. (2010, July). perceive power imbalance and customer dissatisfaction. Service Industries Journal doi10.1080/02642060802298384 30 (7), 1113-1137 http//www.tandfonline.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/doi/abs/10.1080/02642060802298384 Maroney, T. A. (2009). Unlearning fear of out-group others. Law and Contemporary Problems Journal. 72(2), 83-88. Sloan, W. M. (2011, Ma rch). What did you say? Curtail conflict with effective communication. Education Update 53 (3), 3-5 http//proxy1.ncu.edu/login?url=http//search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=58834574&site=ehost-live Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J.