Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'Developmental Psych Core Questions Essay\r'

' cell nucleus Chapter Learning Objectives for PSY 104 Develop intellectual Psychology 1. condone the division of theories in dread great(p) male instruction, and imbibe cardinal basic issues on which study(ip) theories detract a stand. (pp. 5â€7) 2. pull recent theoretical postures on valet de chambre discipline, noting the contributions of major(ip) theorists. (pp. 21â€26)\r\n3. order the stand that each contemporary opening takes on the trio basic issues presented preliminary in this chapter. (pp. 26, 27)\r\n4. charter out the research methods unremarkably used to study human training, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 26â€31) 5. list three research designs for tushvas addition, and list the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34â€38) 6. deal honorable issues cogitate to spiritednessspan research. (pp. 39â€40)\r\nChapter 2\r\n1. excuse the role and amour of genes and how they atomic number 18 patrimonial fro m one generation to the next. (p. 46) 2. string the genetic events that determine the fire of the newfangled organism. (pp. 46â€47) 3. bring up two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (pp. 47â€48) 4. come across miscellaneous patterns of genetic inheritance. (pp. 48â€52) 5. observe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur. (pp. 52â€53) 6. let off how reproductive procedures can assist likely parents in having wellnessy small fryren. (pp. 53â€57) 7. light upon the social frames perspective on family functioning, along with aspects of the environs that withstand family well-being and study. (pp. 59â€60) 8. hash out the pretend of socio economic posture and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 60â€63) 9. take up the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of pincerren and bigs. (pp. 63â€65) 10. inform how heathen values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions par take human discipline. (pp. 65â€70) 11. formu recently the various ways genetic endowment and environment can mold complex traits. (p. 70) 12. list apprehensions that indicate â€Å"how” heredity and environment bring in together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 72â€74)\r\nChapter 3\r\n1. List the three phases of prenatal tuition, and describe the major milestones of each. (pp. 80â€85) 2. Define the term teratogen, and tot the factors that equal the electric shock of teratogens on prenatal tuition. (pp. 85â€86) 3. List agents known or pretend of being teratogens, and prove shew accompaniment the harmful violation of each.(pp. 86â€93) 4. argue other joinrnal factors that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 93â€95) 5. thread the three gives of kidskinbirth. (pp. 96â€97) 6. dissertate the fry’s adaptation to application and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 97â€98) 7 . source natural baby birdbirth and radical delivery, noting the benefits and concerns associated with each. (pp. 99†ampere-second) 8. List common medical checkup interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use, and any d peevishnesss associated with each. (pp. 100†one hundred one) 9. severalize the essays associated with preterm and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who function a traumatic birth recover. (pp. 101â€106) 10. strike the newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal, including residual characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby. (pp. 106â€111) 11. tell the newborn baby’s sensorial capacities. (pp. 111â€113) 12. inform the public utility of neonatal doingsal assessment. (pp. 113â€114)\r\nChapter 4\r\n1. fall upon major multifariousnesss in carnal structure maturation over the initial 2 geezerhood. (pp. one hundred twentyâ€121) 2. reiterate smorgasbords in idea learning during infancy and toddlerhood. (pp. 121â€129) 3. advert the development of the intellectual cortex, and explain the concepts of read/write head ulterioralization and fountainhead plasticity (pp. 124â€125, 126) 4. get word how both heredity and primeval experience tally to brain organization. (pp. 125, 127â€128) 5. contend changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness over the counterbalance 2 years. (pp. 128â€129) 6. argue the nutritionary needs of infants and toddlers, the advantages of breastfeeding, and the goal to which chubby babies are at find for tardilyr overweight and obesity. (pp. 130â€131) 7. sum up the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers, and reference two dietary complaints associated with this condition. (p. 132) 8. learn the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive, noting symptoms and family circumstances associated with the\r\ndisorder. (pp. 132â€133) 9. key quaternity infant learning capacities, the conditions under which they occur, and the unusual value of each. (pp. 133â€136) 10. get word the general lineage of motor development during the first 2 years, along with factors that influence it. (pp. 137â€138) 11. explicate ever-changing systems system of motor development (pp. 138â€140) 12. argue changes in hearing, depth and pattern sensing, and intermodal perception that occur during infancy. (pp. 140â€147) 13. develop preeminence theory of perceptual development. (pp. 147â€148)\r\nChapter 5\r\n1. sop up how schemes change over the course of development. (p. 152) 2. identify Piaget’s six sensorimotor substages, and describe the major cognitive acquirements of the sensorimotor stage. (pp. 153â€one hundred fifty-five) 3. converse recent research on sensorimotor development, noting its implications for the the true of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. (pp. 155â€160) 4. answer for the discipline-processing view of cognitive development and the general structure of the instruction-processing system. (pp. 160â€162) 5. call forth changes in precaution, retention, and cat egotismrization during the first 2 years. (pp. 162â€165) 6. detect contributions and limitations of the information-processing approach, and explain how it makes to our understanding of archaean cognitive development. (p. 165) 7. Explain how Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of former(a) cognitive development. (pp. 165â€166, 167) 8. disclose the noetic testing approach and the accomplishment to which infant tests predict easyr performance. (pp. 166, 168â€169) 9. reason environ kind influences on former(a) mental development, including home, child care, and earliest intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers. (pp. 169â€172) 10. mention theories of nomenclature development, and indicate how much speech pattern eac h places on innate abilities and environmental influences. (pp. 172â€174) 11. report major milestones of language development in the first 2 years, noting man-to-man differences, and hash out ways in which adults can support infants’ and toddlers’ emerging capacities. (pp. 174â€179)\r\nChapter 6\r\n1. reason individual(prenominal)ity changes in the first two stages of Erikson’s\r\npsychosocial theoryâ€basic avow versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt. (pp. 184â€185) 2. force changes in the expression of happiness, anger and sadness, and panic over the first year, noting the adaptive function of each. (pp. 185â€188) 3. summarize changes during the first two years in understanding others’ emotions and expression of conscious emotions. (pp. 188â€189) 4. pull in the development of aflame self-regulation during the first 2 years. (pp. 189â€190) 5. refer temperament, and identify the three temperamental styles ela borated by doubting Thomas and trickster. (pp. 190â€191) 6. Compare Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament with that of Rothbart. (p. 191) 7. Explain how temperament is assessed, and distinguish inhibited, or shy, children from uninhibited, or sociable, children. (pp. 191â€193) 8. deal the stability of temperament and the role of heredity and environment in the development of temperament. (pp. 193â€194) 9. retell the goodness-of-fit model. (pp. 194â€195)\r\n10. spot Bowlby’s ethological theory of appendix, and trace the development of auxiliary during the first two years. (pp. 196â€198) 11. come across the Strange power and Attachment Q-Sort procedures for measuring fastening, along with the four patterns of attachment that have been identified use the Strange Situation. (pp. 198â€199) 12. wrangle the factors that affect attachment security, including opportunity for attachment, quality of caregiving, infant characteristics, family circum stances, and parents’ intimate working models. (pp. 200â€202, 203) 13. handle fathers’ attachment relationships with their infants, and explain the role of azoic attachment quality in tardilyr development. (pp. 202, 204â€205) 14. delimitate and interpret the relationship amongst proficient attachment in infancy and of later development. (pp. 205â€206) 15. Trace the emergence of self-awareness, and explain how it influences archaean emotional and social development, categorization of the self, and development of self-control. (pp. 206â€209)\r\nChapter 7\r\n1. Describe major trends in body growth during proterozoic childhood. (pp. 216â€217) 2. demonstrate brain development in early childhood, including handedness and changes in the cerebellum, reticular formation, and the\r\n head callosum. (pp. 217â€219) 3. Explain how heredity influences corporal growth by controlling the production of hormones. (p. 219) 4. Describe the effects of emotiona l well-being, nutrition, and infectious disease on fleshly development. (pp. 219â€222) 5. summarize factors that enlarge the risk of unwitting injuries, and cite ways childhood injuries can be prevented. (pp. 222â€223) 6. produce major milestones of gross- and fine-motor development in early childhood, including individual and sex differences. (pp. 224â€227) 7. Describe advances in mental representation during the pre educate years. (pp. 227â€229) 8. Describe limitations of pre in operation(p) thought, and ingeminate the implications of recent research for the accuracy of the pre practicable stage. (pp. 229â€233) 9. Describe educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory. (pp. 233â€234) 10. Describe Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on the development and conditional relation of children’s private speech, along with cogitate evidence. (pp. 234â€235) 11. demonstrate applications of Vygotsky’s theory to education, and su mmarize challenges to his ideas. (pp. 235â€237) 12. Describe changes in aid and warehousing during early childhood. (pp. 237â€239) 13. Describe the young child’s theory of mind. (pp. 239â€241) 14. Summarize children’s literacy and mathematical knowledge during early childhood. (pp. 241â€243) 15. Describe early childhood intelligence tests and the impact of home, educational programs, child care, and media on mental development in early childhood. (pp. 243â€248) 16. Trace the development of vocabulary, grammar, and conversational skills in early childhood. (pp. 248â€251)\r\nChapter 8\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt, noting major spirit changes of early childhood. (p. 256) 2. question preschoolers’ self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concepts and the emergence of self-esteem. (pp. 256â€258) 3. muster changes in the understanding and expression of emotion during early childhood, along with factors that influence those changes. (pp. 258â€259) 4. Explain how language and temperament tally to the development of emotional self-regulation during the preschool years. (p. 259) 5. talk about the development of self-conscious emotions, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial\r\nbehavior during early childhood, noting the influence of parenting. (pp. 259â€261) 6. Describe advances in fellow sociability and in companionship in early childhood, along with ethnic and parental influences on early companion relations. (pp. 261â€264) 7. Compare psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive-developmental approaches to incorrupt development, and cite child-rearing practices that support or undermine incorrupt understanding. (pp. 264â€269) 8. Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, noting the influences of family and television, and cite strategies for controlling war-ridden behavior. (pp. 269â€272) 9. prove genetic and environmental influences on preschoolers’ sex-stereotyped popular opinions and behavior. (pp. 273â€276) 10. Describe and evaluate the accuracy of major theories of sex personal personal identity, including ways to take gender stereotyping in young children. (pp. 276â€278) 11. Describe the impact of child-rearing styles on child development, explain wherefore authoritative parenting is efficacious, and note pagan variations in child-rearing beliefs and practices. (pp. 278â€281) 12. controvert the multiple origins of child mal give-and-take, its consequences for development, and effective prevention. (pp. 281â€283)\r\nChapter 9\r\n1. Describe major trends in body growth during mall childhood. (p. 290) 2. Identify common vision and hearing problems in halfway childhood. (p. 291) 3. Describe the causes and consequences of hard nutritionary problems in affection childhood, giving peculiar(a) attention to obesity. (pp. 291â€293) 4. Identify factors that guide to nausea during the school years, and describe ways to reduce these health problems. (pp. 293â€294)\r\n5. Describe changes in unintentional injuries in middle childhood. (p. 294) 6. recognition major changes in motor development and track down during middle childhood, including sex differences and the vastness of physical education. (pp. 294â€299) 7. Describe major characteristics of concrete operational thought. (pp. 299â€301) 8. establish follow-up research on concrete operational thought, noting the importance of nuance and schooling.(pp. 301â€302) 9. say basic changes in information processing and describe the development of attention and memory in middle childhood.\r\n(pp. 303â€305) 10. Describe the school-age child’s theory of mind, noting the importance of mental inferences and understanding of false belief and skill to engage in self-regulation. (pp. 306â€307) 11. controvert applications of information processing to academician learning, including catameni a controversies in teaching reading and math to elementary school children. (pp. 307â€309) 12. Describe major approaches to defining and measuring intelligence. (pp. 309â€310) 13. Summarize Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, noting how these theories explain the limitations of ongoing intelligence tests in assessing the diversity of human intelligence. (pp. 310â€312) 14. Describe evidence indicating that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence. (pp. 312â€317) 15. Summarize findings on emotional intelligence, including implications for the classroom. (p. 313) 16. Describe changes in school-age children’s vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics, and cite advantages of bilingualism. (pp. 316â€319) 17. Explain the impact of class size and educational philosophies on children’s motivation and academic achievement. (pp. 319â€321)\r\n18. dispute the role of teacher-student interaction a nd classify practices in academic achievement. (pp. 321â€322) 19. Explain the conditions that contribute to successful placement of children with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities in incessant classrooms. (p. 322) 20. Describe the characteristics of gifted children, including creativity and talent, and current efforts to pull together their educational needs. (pp. 323â€324) 21. Compare the academic achievement of North American children with children in other industrialized nations. (pp. 324â€325)\r\nChapter 10\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority, noting major personality changes in middle childhood. (p. 330) 2. Describe school-age children’s self-concept and self-esteem, and deal factors that affect their achievement-related attributions. (pp. 330â€334) 3. Cite changes in understanding and expression of emotion in middle childhood, including the importance of problem-centered deal and emotion-centered coping f or man agedness emotion. (pp. 335â€336) 4. Trace the development of perspective\r\npickings in middle childhood, and discuss the relationship between perspective taking and social skills. (pp. 336â€337) 5. Describe changes in object lesson understanding during middle childhood, and note the outcome to which children hold racial and ethnic biases. (pp. 337â€339) 6. Summarize changes in peer sociability during middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and friendships. (pp. 339â€341) 7. Describe four categories of peer acceptance, noting how each is related to social behavior, and discuss ways to help rejected children. (pp. 341â€342, 343) 8. Describe changes in gender-stereotyped beliefs and gender identity during middle childhood, including sex differences and cultural influences. (pp. 342â€345) 9. question changes in parentâ€child communication and cognate relationships in middle childhood, and describe the re valuation reserve of only child ren. (pp. 345â€346) 10. reason factors that influence children’s adjustment to divorce and blended families, high spot the importance of parent and child characteristics, as well as social supports at heart the family and surrounding community. (pp. 347â€350) 11. Explain how maternal employment and support in dual-earner families affect school-age children, noting the influence of social supports within the family and surrounding community, including child care for school-age children. (pp. 350â€351)\r\n12. Cite common awes and anxieties in middle childhood, with particular attention to school phobia. (pp. 352, 353) 13. Discuss factors related to child versed abuse and its consequences for children’s development. (pp. 352â€354, 355) 14. Cite factors that evoke resilience in middle childhood. (p. 354)\r\nChapter 11\r\n1. Discuss changing conceptions of adolescence over the one-time(prenominal) century. (pp. 362â€363) 2. Describe pubertal changes in body size, proportions, sleep patterns, motor performance, and sexual maturity. (pp. 363â€366) 3. Cite factors that influence the timing of puberty. (pp. 366â€367) 4. Describe brain development in adolescence. (pp. 367â€368) 5. Discuss adolescents’ reactions to the physical changes of puberty, including sex differences, and describe the influence of family and culture. (pp. 368â€370) 6. Discuss the impact of pubertal timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex\r\ndifferences. (pp. 370â€371) 7. Describe the nutritional needs of adolescents, and cite factors that contribute to serious eating disorders. (pp. 371â€373) 8. Discuss social and cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. (pp. 373â€376) 9. Describe factors involved in the development of festal, lesbian, and bisexual person orientations, and discuss the unique adjustment problems of these youths. (pp. 376, 377) 10. Discuss factors related to sexually transmitted diseases a nd to juvenile pregnancy and parenthood, including interventions for adolescent parents. (pp. 376, 378â€380) 11. Cite personal and social factors that contribute to adolescent totality use and abuse, and describe prevention and treatment programs. (pp. 380â€382) 12. Describe the major characteristics of formal operational thought. (pp. 382â€384) 13. Discuss recent research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s formal operational stage. (pp. 384â€385) 14. Explain how information-processing researchers account for cognitive change in adolescence, emphasizing the development of scientific reasoning. (pp. 385â€386) 15. Summarize cognitive and behavioral consequences of adolescents’ newfound capacity for advanced thinking. (pp. 386â€388)\r\n16. Note sex differences in mental abilities at adolescence, along with biological and environmental factors that influence them. (pp. 389â€390, 391) 17. Discuss the impact of school transitions on adolescent adjustment, and cite ways to ease the strain of these changes. (pp. 390, 392â€393) 18. Discuss family, peer, school, and employment influences on academic achievement during adolescence. (pp. 393â€395) 19. Describe personal, family, and school factors related to falling out, and cite ways to prevent early school leaving. (pp. 396â€397)\r\nChapter 12\r\n1. Discuss Erikson’s theory of identity development. (p. 402) 2. Describe changes in self-concept and self-esteem during adolescence. (pp. 402â€403) 3. Describe the four identity statuses, the adjustment outcomes of each status, and factors that promote identity development. (pp. 403â€406) 4. Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and evaluate its accuracy. (pp. 407â€409) 5. Summarize research on Gilligan’s claim that\r\nKohlberg’s theory underestimated the moral maturity of females. (pp. 409â€410)\r\n6. Describe influences on moral reasoni ng and its relationship to moral behavior. (pp. 410â€414) 7. Explain why early adolescence is a period of gender intensification, and cite factors that promote the development of an androgynous gender identity. (pp. 414â€415) 8. Discuss changes in parentâ€child and sib relationships during adolescence. (pp. 415â€417) 9. Describe adolescent friendships, peer groups, and date relationships and their consequences for development. (pp. 417â€421) 10. Discuss conformity to peer bosom in adolescence, noting the importance of authoritative child rearing. (p. 421) 11. Discuss factors related to adolescent notion and suicide, along with approaches for prevention and treatment. (pp. 421â€423) 12. Summarize factors related to delinquency, and describe strategies for prevention and treatment. (pp. 423â€426)\r\nChapter 13\r\n1. Describe current theories of biological aging, including those at the take aim of DNA and body cells, and those at the train of organs and tissu es. (pp. 432â€434) 2. Describe the physical changes of aging, nonrecreational extra attention to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, motor performance, the resistive system, and reproductive capacity. (pp. 434â€438) 3. Describe the impact of SES, nutrition, obesity, and exercise on health in adulthood. (pp. 438â€444) 4. Describe trends in centre abuse in early adulthood, and discuss the health risks of each. (pp. 444â€445) 5. Summarize sexual attitudes and behaviors in young adults, including sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual coercion, and premenstrual syndrome. (pp. 445â€449) 6. Explain how mental stress affects health. (pp. 449â€451) 7. Summarize prominent theories on the restructuring of thought in adulthood, including those of Perry and Labouvie-Vief. (pp. 451â€453) 8. Discuss the development of expertise and creativity in adulthood. (pp. 453â€454) 9. Describe the impact of a college education on young batch’s lives, and discuss the problem of dropping out.(pp. 454â€455) 10. Trace the development of vocational choice, and note factors that influence it. (pp. 455â€458) 11. Discuss vocational preparation of non-college-bound\r\nyoung adults, including the challenges these individuals face.(pp. 458â€459)\r\nChapter 14\r\n1. Define emerging adulthood, and explain how cultural change has contributed to the emergence of this period. (pp. 464â€466) 2. Describe Erikson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation, noting personality changes that take place during early adulthood. (pp. 468â€469) 3. Summarize Levinson’s and Vaillant’s psychosocial theories of adult personality development, including how they grant to both men’s and women’s lives and their limitations. (pp. 469â€471) 4. Describe the social clock and how it relates to adjustment in adulthood. (p. 471) 5. Discuss factors that affect mate selection, and explain the role of romantic bash in young adults’ quest for intimacy. (pp. 472, 474) 6. Explain how culture influences the experience of love. (p. 475) 7. Cite characteristics of adult friendships and sibling relationships, including differences between same-sex, other-sex, and sibling friendships. (pp. 475â€476) 8. Cite factors that influence privacy, and explain the role of loneliness in adult development. (pp. 476â€477) 9. Trace phases of the family bearing cycle that are prominent in early adulthood, noting factors that influence these phases. (pp. 478â€485) 10. Discuss the diversity of adult vitalitystyles, focusing on singlehood, cohabitation, and childlessness. (pp. 486â€488) 11. Discuss trends in divorce and remarriage, along with factors that contribute to them. (pp. 488â€489) 12. Summarize challenges associated with variant styles of parenthood, including stepparents, never-married single parents, and laughable and lesbian parents. (pp. 489â€491) 13. Describe patterns of life d evelopment, and cite difficulties faced by women, ethnic minorities, and couples want to combine work and family. (pp. 491â€495)\r\nChapter 15\r\n1. Describe the physical changes of middle adulthood, paying redundant attention to vision, hearing, the skin, muscleâ€fat makeup, and the skeleton. (pp. 502â€504, 505) 2. Summarize reproductive changes experienced by old men and women, and discuss the symptoms of menopause, the benefits and risks of hormone therapy, and women’s psychological reactions\r\nto menopause. (pp. 504, 506â€509) 3. Discuss sexuality in middle adulthood. (p. 509)\r\n4. Discuss cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis, noting sex differences, risk factors, and interventions. (pp. 509â€513) 5. Explain how hostility and anger affect health. (pp. 513â€514) 6. Discuss the benefits of stress management, exercise, and an cheerful outlook in adapting to the physical challenges of midlife. (pp. 514â€517) 7. Explain the double standar d of aging. (p. 517)\r\n8. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid intelligence during middle adulthood, and discuss individual and group differences in intellectual development. (pp. 518â€520) 9. Describe changes in information processing in midlife, paying special attention to speed of processing, attention, and memory. (pp. 520â€523) 10. Discuss the development of practical problem resolving power, expertise, and creativity in middle adulthood. (pp. 523â€525) 11. Describe the relationship between vocational life and cognitive development. (pp. 525â€526) 12. Discuss the challenges of adult learners, ways to support move students, and benefits of earning a degree in midlife. (pp. 526â€527)\r\nChapter 16\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation, noting major personality changes of middle adulthood and related research findings. (pp. 532â€535) 2. Discuss Levinson’s and Vaillant’s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp. 535â€536) 3. Summarize research examining the question of whether most old adults experience a midlife crisis.(pp. 536â€537) 4. Describe stability and change in self-concept and personality in middle adulthood. (pp. 538â€539) 5. Describe changes in gender identity in midlife. (pp. 540â€542) 6. Discuss stability and change in the â€Å" medium-large five” personality traits in adulthood. (pp. 542â€543) 7. Describe the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle, and discuss midlife marital relationships and relationships with adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents. (pp. 543â€551) 8. Describe midlife sibling relationships\r\nand friendships. (pp. 551â€553) 9. Discuss bloodline satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, paying special attention to gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp. 553â€555) 10. Describe career change and unemploymen t in middle adulthood. (p. 556) 11. Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp. 556â€557)\r\nChapter 17\r\n1. Distinguish between chronological age and functional age, and discuss changes in life expectancy over the early(prenominal) century. (pp. 564â€566, 568â€569) 2. Explain age-related changes in the nervous system during late adulthood. (pp. 566â€567) 3. Summarize changes in sensory functioning during late adulthood, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. (pp. 567â€570) 4. Describe cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune system changes in late adulthood. (pp. 570â€571) 5. Discuss sleep difficulties in late adulthood. (pp. 571â€572) 6. Summarize changes in physical health and mobility in late adulthood, including elders’ adaptation to the physical changes, and reactions to stereotypes of aging. (pp. 572â€575, 576) 7. Discuss health and fitness in late life, payi ng special attention to nutrition, exercise, and sexuality. (pp. 575â€579) 8. Discuss common physical disabilities in late adulthood, with special attention to arthritis, adult-onset diabetes, and unintentional injuries. (pp. 580â€582) 9. Describe mental disabilities common in late adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dementia, and misdiagnosed and reversible dementia. (pp. 582â€588) 10. Discuss health-care issues that affect senior citizens. (pp. 589â€590) 11. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid abilities in late adulthood, and explain how old(a) adults can make the most of their cognitive resources. (pp. 590â€591) 12. Summarize memory changes in late life, including implicit, associative, remote, and prospective memories. (pp. 591â€594) 13. Discuss changes in language processing in late adulthood. (pp. 594â€595) 14. Explain how problem solving changes in late life. (p. 595) 15. Discuss the capacities that contribute to wisdo m, noting how it is affected by age and life experience. (pp. 595â€596) 16. Discuss factors related to cognitive change in late adulthood. (pp. 596â€597)\r\nChapter 18\r\n1. Describe Erikson’s stage of ego equity versus despair. (p. 604) 2. Discuss Peck’s tasks of ego integrity, Joan Erikson’s gerotranscendence, and Labouvie-Vief’s emotional expertise.(pp. 604â€605) 3. Describe the functions of reminiscence and life review in quondam(a) adults’ lives. (pp. 606, 607) 4. Summarize stability and change in self-concept and personality in late adulthood. (pp. 606â€608) 5. Discuss spirituality and religiosity in late adulthood. (pp. 608â€609) 6. Discuss contextual influences on psychological well-being as older adults respond to increased dependency, declining health, and negative life changes. (pp. 609â€611, 612) 7. Summarize the role of social support and social interaction in promoting physical health and psychological well-being i n late adulthood. (p. 611) 8. Describe social theories of aging, including detachment theory, activity theory, continuity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. (pp. 612â€615, 616) 9. Describe changes in social relationships in late adulthood, including marriage, gay and lesbian partnerships, divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, and widowhood, and discuss never-married, childless older adults. (pp. 619â€623) 10. Explain how sibling relationships and friendships change in late life. (pp. 624â€625) 11. Describe older adults’ relationships with adult children, adult grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. (pp. 625â€626) 12. Summarize elder maltreatment, including risk factors and strategies for prevention. (pp. 627â€628) 13. Discuss the decision to retire, adjustment to retirement, and occasion in leisure and volunteer activities. (pp. 628â€632)\r\n14. Discuss the meaning of optimal aging. (pp. 632â€633)\r\nChapter 19\r\n1. Describe the physical chan ges of anxious(p), along with their implications for defining cobblers last and the meaning of closing with dignity. (pp. 640â€642) 2. Discuss age-related changes in conception of and attitudes toward death, including ways to enhance child and adolescent understanding. (pp. 642â€644) 3. Cite factors that influence death anxiety, including personal and cultural variables that contribute to the fear of death. (p. 643) 4.\r\nDescribe and evaluate Kübler-Ross’s theory of typical responses to dying, citing factors that influence dying patients’ responses. (pp. 647â€648) 5. Evaluate the extent to which homes, hospitals, and the hospice approach meet the needs of dying people and their families. (pp. 650â€653) 6. Discuss controversies surrounding euthanasia and assisted suicide. (pp. 654â€659) 7. Describe stroke and the phases of grieving, indicating factors that underlie individual variations in grief responses. (pp. 659â€660) 8. Explain the concept of bereavement overload, and describe bereavement interventions. (pp. 663, 665) 9. Explain how death education can help people cope with death more effectively. (p. 665)\r\n'

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