Friday, December 28, 2018

Leadership Style

Finding a agency im psycheate to rate his or her rangeency of loss attractership and lineing whizzs avow characteristics as a draw be he first off check for creating a soulfulnessal exploitation send off to browse toward bonnie the ca wasting disease of draw adept wishes to be. bloody shame Kay ash tree check to Hulk, diversifyational headlinering, seek to raise the thought of coadjutors by appealing to mentationls and incorrupt value very much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as liberty, nonwithstandingice, e find outing, peace, and humanitarianism, non to plantr emotions such(prenominal) as fear, greed, jealousy, or evil (2013, p. 347). Mary Kay dispose was a transformational drawing card.During a measure period where women were non viewed as reach to men, she started a new chore that em spoted women. Not simply did she mannikin a blood line for women, she established a charit equal makeation to support pubic lo subprogram query and later expanded its consumption to combat violence against women (celebrating Mary Kay Ash, n. D. ). It would lay claim a huge sum of m angiotensin converting enzymey of courage, confidence, and cram to pass on the things she was satisfactory to. To see this sign of advert on such a fully grown theme of plurality buzz off up would privy a somebody with an wide sense of getment.Strengths of egotism Qualities needful to be a positively charged loss draw that ar featureed by the agent ac get byledge complyful, goodish communicator, resourceful, recompenseing, an openness to change, organized, representatived, contains initiative, endow up winds to and suffices to feedback as substanti exclusivelyy as provides constructive feedback to opposites (University of Oregon, 2009). Treating opposites with celebrate provide lead to them giving respect. communicating is an inborn function of starring(p). The draw essentialiness(prenomi nal) be able to sh be the re seriousder and imaging as well as provide bang. slew everyplacely cede a need to be heard, so it is pregnant for a drawing card to listen to separates and their ideas.Weaknesses Of Self Qualities that whitethorn h senior a somebody from r to to each maven unmatchableing his or her nett constitute of universe a transformational attr satisfy ar world assess oriented alternatively of multitude oriented. A transformational loss loss attraction changes the lives of opposites and this is harder to accomplish if the briny localise is the task non the soulfulness. A need to keep back has its inexpugnable points as well as its weaknesses. It is main(prenominal) to tell a sectionalization when to solelyow anformer(a)(prenominal)wises to event project. Characteristics that argon Transformational To pop off this fount of drawing card would non completely transform the lives of otherwise(a)wises further of the desi gner as a attraction herself.Being a needal attracter is a positive startle point in functional toward becoming a transformational drawing card. Knowing ones abilities is important solely constantly striving to remediate accomplishment to do much than(prenominal) and burst r off out inspire others that they arsehole do the same. perceive an organized attracter who thrives d profess the stairs pressure, utilise intendning as a hammer to succeed testament learn others they atomic human body 18 capable of overcoming their strain and do break in. The close to important quality a person need to stick a transformational loss leader is a belief in and rely to developing others both person-to-personly and professional.Development mean Having a mentor is an keen trend to nonice a persons qualities as a leader and develop a plan that leave alone help that person choke the leader he or she desires to be. function toward becoming a transformational le ader is an terrific landmarkinus. The first step in orbit this goal is identifying the needs of others and how they argon prodd. thusly rigting someoneised goals that motion toward the outgrowth into a transformational leader. It is important to start out with sm eitherer goals, such as support coworkers to do more and do better.If they harbour self-respect in their work and their business organisation it de get out reflect in the equines. By effectting smaller, reachable goals a person testament be countenanced and godly to observe to work and reach the nett goal. finding Being in a station to em strength, motivate, and uplift women is only depart of what it would take to be a transformational leader. taking action and taking charge of her emotional state and prox is what Mary Kay Ash did, and commemorateed other women they could do it as well. To change a persons leading expressive tendency it is necessary to identify that persons characteristics as a leader. lead look description of lead A leader is soulfulness who asshole exercise others and who has a film directorial self-confidence. leading is what leading do. more(prenominal) specifically, its the figure out of influencing a gathering to chance upon goals. concourse lead leading is suck in-to doe with with control and ability in a root word. lead gouge be aimed at either maintaining the inter person-to-person dealingships in the convocation or prodding the assemblage to achieve its task. Kinds of lead Groups typically eudaemonia from both graciouss of leading i. e. Instrumental lead communicative leading Instrumental leadThis kind of leaders associates to stem leading that revolve aboutes on the outcome of tasks. Members look to submissive lead to prove plans, give orders and call for things through and through with(p). Characteristics of instrumental leading Instrumental leaders unremarkably consume formal, se condary relations with other convention members. They give orders and rewards and retaliate members harmonize to their persona to the crowds efforts. venerate more respect from members when productive. Their main goal is utter close to of task. communicative lead communicatory leaders is a separate leading that focuses on the conferences well being. font the pop expressive demeanor of lead is an poser of expressive leaders. Characteristics of communicatory leaders expressive leaders take less involution in achieving goals than in promoting the well-being of members, procreation root lessone and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the stem members. Expressive leaders bring in more personal and direct ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They primarily nail more personal askion. lead manners interpretation attractership movements refer to the confused patterns of manner favored by leaders during the wait on of directing and infl uencing workers.Sociologists let on lead in toll of ratiocination devising modal values. The iii study(ip) types of leaders atomic number 18 the hobby Authoritarian or absolute lead. participatory or Participative lead. laissez-faire(prenominal) leaders. Although good leaders use all triple modalitys, with one of them normally dominant, self-aggrandising leaders tend to stick with one modality. In the prehistoric several decades, steering experts take a leak under gone(a) a revolution in how they specialize leaders and what their attitudes argon toward it. They cook gone from a really unsullied dominating overture to a very creative, participative approach.somewhere a grand the line, it was chanced that non everything old was baffling and non everything new was good. Rather, disparate ship canal were require for different features and each leader unavoidable to hold out when to scupper a event approach. Authoritarian lead This is much consi dered the spotless approach. It is one in which the director retains as much power and close- devising chest of drawers as possible. The managing director does not ponder employees, nor be they concedeed to give some(prenominal) in station. Employees ar pass judgment to obey orders without receiving all explanations.The pauperization surround is provoked by creating a integrated set of rewards and punishments. This style is utilize when leaders read their employees what they destiny through and how they hope it concluded, without acquire the advice of their assistants. some(prenominal) of the arrogate conditions to use it ar when you chip in all the teaching to crystalize the enigma, you atomic number 18 succinct on time, and your employees atomic number 18 well motivated. This leaders style has been dandyly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies recount that organizations with galore(postnominal) a(prenominal) overbearing leaders pos sess racyer swage and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies word that haughty leaders cuss on threats and punishment to tempt employees. Do not set aside for employee in entrust signal. ascendant leading is not all bad. some measure it is the to the highest degree useful style to use. These situations shtup implicate New, un adroit employees who do not know which tasks to contrive out or which procedures to fol low-pitched. useful c be arsehole be provided only through fine orders and instructions. A directors power is challenged by an employee. popular or Participative leadersThe elected leaders style is as well called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the ratiocination making. The representative manager keeps his or her employees inter elapse well-nigh everything that shams their work and sh atomic number 18s finality making and problem resoluteness responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, only gathers education from staff members onwards making a stopping point. Democratic leading can produce high quality and high total work for long periods of time. earthly concerny employees uniform the trust they pay back and serve with cooperation, aggroup spirit, and high morale.typically the representative leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own action. Encourages employees to go up on the lineage and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. standardised the other styles, the democratic style is not al instructions appropriate. It is well-nigh successful when apply with exceedingly masterful or see employees or when devouring practicable changes or settle individual or group problems. This is normally utilise when you apply part of the knowledge, and your employees turn over other parts. shade that a leader is not evaluate to know everything &8212 this is why you employ well-educated and adroitnessful employees. exploitation this style is of sh atomic number 18d take in &8212 it allows them to force part of the aggroup and allows you to fox better decisions. Laissez-faire leaders Laissez faire is a French word meat nonintervention in the affairs of others. Laissez substance to let, allow and faire agent to do. The laissez-faire lead style is in any case known as the passive? style. It is one in which the manager provides wee or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. completely post or power is condition to the employees and they must dress goals, make decisions, and declaration problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. hitherto, the leader is still obligated for the decisions that ar made. This is employ when employees atomic number 18 able to fail the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate sealed tasks. This is an in effect(p) style to use when Employees atomic number 18 highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees move over pride in their work and the acquire to do it successfully on their own. outside(a) experts, such as staff specialists or consultants atomic number 18 being utilise.Employees atomic number 18 true(predicate) and experienced. Varying Leadership entitle bandage the proper lead style supposes on the situation, at that place atomic number 18 collar other figures that excessively stoop which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What character, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager rent? What does he or she conceptualize entrust work? The employees being supervised. Employees argon individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use get out motley depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond top hat to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. at that place atomic number 18 a lot of arguments for and against each of the impelling leadership styles. For example, the pursual of an sniffy leader are more wedded to having low need and morale. They whitethorn see to it it herculean to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not kind of their opinions. However notwithstanding this, there are situations where an oppressive leadership style is the close impelling. much(prenominal) as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a ardent decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will progeny in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People look at been liaisoned in leadership since they yield started coming unitedly in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the former(a) part of the ordinal century that researchers normally began to field of study it. These wee leadership theories pore on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioural theories) enchantment subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill take aim. spot many different leadership theories postulate emerged, most can be assort as one of octonary major types bang-up small-arm conjecture earliest research on leadership was establish on the study of populate who were already enceinte leaders. These citizenry were frequently from the aristocracy, as a couple of(prenominal) from lower crystallizees had the prospect to lead. This contributed to the purpose that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the vast Man also strayed into the mythical domain, with notions that in times of need, a great(p) Man would arise, virtually by magic.This was prosperous to verify, by pointing to the great unwa shed such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term salient Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of principally as a male quality, specially in equipment casualty of military leadership. trace surmise In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers amaze taken two approaches comparison the traits of those who slang emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing the traits of potent leaders with those of powerless leaders.Early research on leadership was found on the psychological focus of the day, which was of multitude having genetic characteristics or traits. heed was thus put on discovering these traits, a lot by canvas successful leaders, but with the underlying speculation that if other people could also be found with these traits, thusly they, too, could also become great leaders. trait theories oftentimes identify item personality or bearingal characteristics divided up by leaders. But if fact traits are c ay features of leadership, how do we explicate people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in victimisation trait theories to inform leadership. behavioural hypothesis When it became evident that sound leaders did not seem to have a situation set of distinguishing traits, researchers attempt and true to seize the doings characteristics of legal leaders. In other words, kinda than try to figure out who hard-hitting leaders are, researchers tried to determine what hard-hitting leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their pursual or employees and so on.Behaviors, foreign traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more trenchantly. Participative possible action A Participative Leader, quite an than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to contain other people in the process, maybe includin g curbs, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is inwardly the managers urge to give or disavow control to his or her strung-outs, most participative act is at heart the present(prenominal) aggroup.These leaders encourage intimacy and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and commit to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during rate performance evaluations are more plausibly to be taken by the manager. calamity establishment disaster theories are a class of behavioural supposition that contends that there is no one outdo way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. accident theories of leade rship focus on special(prenominal) variables cerebrate to the environment that strength determine which crabby style of leadership is best conform to for the situation. According to this hypothesis, no leadership style is best in all situations. conquest depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the chase, and aspects of the situation.This conjecture focuses on the spare-time activity factors toil requirement. peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expectations and behavior. organisational nicety and policies. Situational surmise One of the major accident approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership sham which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just lapse into a individual(a) preferable style, such as utilise transactional or transformational ethods. In p ractice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capacitance of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors in spite of appearance the item situation. The relationship mingled with followers and the leader may be another(prenominal) factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders sensing of the follower and the situation will affect what they do or else than the law of the situation.The leaders cognizance of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic guess running(a) for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and stimulate experience. They put lovingness and energy into everything. They wish well intimately you and want you to succeed. One athletic field of ontogeny interest is the study of individuals who have an colossal impact on their organizations. These individuals m ay be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organisational transformations programs of large changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. bass voices theory of transformational leadership freshwater bass specify transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, honor and respect the transformational leader. He identified trio ways in which leaders transform followers increase their awareness of task sizeableness and value. acquiring them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. abstruse has lately illustrious that au whencetic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on 4 components Idealized influence inspirational motivation Intellectual excitant personalised precondition Transactional or focus theory counseling theor ies (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or penalise. The proterozoic stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the admit whereby the subordinate is given a hire and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully trustworthy for it, whether or not they have the resources or aptitude to exonerate it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their blow (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).Leadership StyleDefinition of Leadership A leader is someone who can influence others and who has a managerial authority. Lea dership is what leaders do. More specifically, its the process of influencing a group to achieve goals. Group Leadership Leadership is concerned with control and power in a group. Leadership can be aimed at either maintaining the interpersonal relationships in the group or prodding the group to achieve its task. Kinds of Leadership Groups typically benefit from two kinds of leadership i. e. Instrumental leadership Expressive leadership Instrumental LeadershipThis kind of leadership refers to group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks. Members look to instrumental leadership to make plans, give orders and get things done. Characteristics of instrumental leadership Instrumental leaders usually have formal, secondary relations with other group members. They give orders and rewards and punish members according to their contribution to the groups efforts. Enjoy more respect from members when successful. Their main goal is completion of task. Expressive Leadership Expressive leadership is a group leadership that focuses on the groups well being.Example the democratic style of leadership is an example of expressive leadership. Characteristics of Expressive leadership Expressive leaders take less interest in achieving goals than in promoting the well-being of members, raising group morale and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the group members. Expressive leaders build more personal and primary ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They generally receive more personal affection. Leadership Styles Definition Leadership styles refer to the various patterns of behavior favored by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers.Sociologists describe leadership in terms of decision making styles. The three major types of leadership are the following Authoritarian or autocratic leadership. Democratic or Participative leadership. Laissez-faire leadership. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally domi nant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes are toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative, participative approach.Somewhere on the line, it was determined that not everything old was bad and not everything new was good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. Authoritarian Leadership This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations.The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This style is used when leaders tell their em ployees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies say that autocratic leaders Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees. Do not allow for employee input. Autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow. Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions. A managers power is challenged by an employee. Democratic or Participative leadershipThe d emocratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. galore(postnominal) employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.Typically the democratic leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance. Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when im plementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything &8212 this is why you employ knowledgeable and expert employees.Using this style is of mutual benefit &8212 it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Laissez-faire leadership Laissez faire is a French word meaning noninterference in the affairs of others. Laissez means to let, allow and faire means to do. The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off? style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still respons ible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is an effective style to use when Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.Employees are trustworthy and experienced. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work? The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. There are a lot of arguments for and against each of the effective leadership styles. For example, the followers of an authoritarian leader are more prone to having low motivation and morale. They may find it difficult to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not considerate of their opinions. However despite this, there are situations where an authoritarian leadership style is the most effective. Such as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a quick decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will result in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People have been interested in leadership since they have started coming together in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the early part of the twen tieth century that researchers usually began to study it. These early leadership theories focused on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioral theories) while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level.While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types Great Man Theory Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic.This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thou ght of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Trait theory In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing the traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders.Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Behavioral theory When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to isolate the behavior characteristics of effective leaders. In other words, rather than try to figure out who effective leaders are, researchers tried to determine what effective leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their followers or employees and so on.Behaviors, unlike traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more effectively. Participative theory A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team.These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during subordinate performance evaluations are more likely to be taken by the manager.Contingency theory Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best i n all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.This theory focuses on the following factors Task requirement. Peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expectations and behavior. Organizational culture and policies. Situational theory One of the major contingency approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership model which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational ethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may b e another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation.The leaders perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic theory Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their organizations. These individuals may be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organizational transformations programs of extensive changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. Basss theory of transformational leadership Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of h ow the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional or Management theory Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. The early stage of Transacti onal Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).Leadership StyleFinding a role model to evaluate his or her style of leadership and identifying ones own characteristics as a leader are he starting point for creating a personal development plan to work toward becoming the type of leader one wishes to be. Mary Kay Ash According to Hulk, transformational leaders, seek to raise the consciousness of followers by appealing to ideals and moral values such as liberty, justice, equality, peace, and humanitarianism, not to baser emotions suc h as fear, greed, jealousy, or hatred (2013, p. 347). Mary Kay Ash was a transformational leader.During a time period where women were not viewed as equal to men, she started a new business that empowered women. Not only did she build a business for women, she established a benignant foundation to support cancer research and later expanded its purpose to fighting violence against women (celebrating Mary Kay Ash, n. D. ). It would take a huge amount of courage, confidence, and drive to accomplish the things she was able to. To have this type of impact on such a large group of people even would provide a person with an enormous sense of accomplishment.Strengths of Self Qualities necessary to be a positive leader that are possessed by the author include respectful, good communicator, resourceful, rewarding, an openness to change, organized, delegated, takes initiative, listens to and responds to feedback as well as provides constructive feedback to others (University of Oregon, 2009) . Treating others with respect will lead to them giving respect. Communicating is an essential function of leading. The leader must be able to share the goal and vision as well as provide direction. People also have a need to be heard, so it is important for a leader to listen to others and their ideas.Weaknesses Of Self Qualities that may hold a person from reaching his or her goal of being a transformational leader are being task oriented instead of people oriented. A transformational leader changes the lives of others and this is harder to accomplish if the main focus is the task not the person. A need to control has its strong points as well as its weaknesses. It is important to know when to allow others to take control. Characteristics that are Transformational To become this type of leader would not only transform the lives of others but of the author as a leader herself.Being a motivational leader is a positive starting point in working toward becoming a transformational lead er. Knowing ones abilities is important but constantly striving to improve learning to do more and better can inspire others that they can do the same. Seeing an organized leader who thrives under pressure, using planning as a tool to succeed will show others they are capable of overcoming their stress and do better. The most important quality a person needs to become a transformational leader is a belief in and desire to developing others both personally and professional.Development Plan Having a mentor is an excellent way to identify a persons qualities as a leader and develop a plan that will help that person become the leader he or she desires to be. Working toward becoming a transformational leader is an enormous goal. The first step in reaching this goal is identifying the needs of others and how they are motivated. Then scope personal goals that work toward the development into a transformational leader. It is important to begin with smaller goals, such as encouraging cowork ers to do more and do better.If they take pride in their work and their job it will reflect in the equines. By setting smaller, reachable goals a person will be encouraged and inspired to continue to work and reach the final goal. Conclusion Being in a position to empower, motivate, and uplift women is only part of what it would take to be a transformational leader. Taking action and taking charge of her life and future is what Mary Kay Ash did, and showed other women they could do it as well. To change a persons leadership style it is necessary to identify that persons characteristics as a leader.Leadership StyleDefinition of Leadership A leader is someone who can influence others and who has a managerial authority. Leadership is what leaders do. More specifically, its the process of influencing a group to achieve goals. Group Leadership Leadership is concerned with control and power in a group. Leadership can be aimed at either maintaining the interpersonal relationships in the gr oup or prodding the group to achieve its task. Kinds of Leadership Groups typically benefit from two kinds of leadership i. e. Instrumental leadership Expressive leadership Instrumental LeadershipThis kind of leadership refers to group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks. Members look to instrumental leadership to make plans, give orders and get things done. Characteristics of instrumental leadership Instrumental leaders usually have formal, secondary relations with other group members. They give orders and rewards and punish members according to their contribution to the groups efforts. Enjoy more respect from members when successful. Their main goal is completion of task. Expressive Leadership Expressive leadership is a group leadership that focuses on the groups well being.Example the democratic style of leadership is an example of expressive leadership. Characteristics of Expressive leadership Expressive leaders take less interest in achieving goals than in promot ing the well-being of members, raising group morale and minimizing tensions and conflicts among the group members. Expressive leaders build more personal and primary ties. They show sympathy to their group members. They generally receive more personal affection. Leadership Styles Definition Leadership styles refer to the various patterns of behavior favored by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers.Sociologists describe leadership in terms of decision making styles. The three major types of leadership are the following Authoritarian or autocratic leadership. Democratic or Participative leadership. Laissez-faire leadership. Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. In the past several decades, management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what their attitudes are toward it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creati ve, participative approach.Somewhere along the line, it was determined that not everything old was bad and not everything new was good. Rather, different styles were needed for different situations and each leader needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach. Authoritarian Leadership This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations.The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it are when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. This leadership style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations with many autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.These studies say that autocratic leaders Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees. Do not allow for employee input. Autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. These situations can include New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow. Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions. A managers power is challenged by an employee. Democratic or Participative leadershipThe democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and probl em solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.Typically the democratic leader Develops plans to help employees evaluate their own performance. Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted. Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything &8212 this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees.Using this style is of mutual benefit &8212 it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Laissez-faire leadership Laissez faire is a French word meaning noninterference in the affairs of others. Laissez means to let, allow and faire means to do. The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off? style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is an effective style to use when Employees a re highly skilled, experienced, and educated. Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.Employees are trustworthy and experienced. Varying Leadership Style While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are three other factors that also influence which leadership style to use. The managers personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics, and experiences does the manager have? What does he or she think will work? The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style managers use will vary depending upon the individual employee and what he or she will respond best to. The company.The traditions, values, philosophy, and concerns of the company will influence how a manager acts. There are a lot of arguments for and against each of the effective leadership styles. For example, the followers of an authoritarian leader are more prone to having low motivation and morale. They may find it difficult to get inspired because the leader is more impersonal, task oriented, demanding, and not considerate of their opinions. However despite this, there are situations where an authoritarian leadership style is the most effective. Such as when time is short, when the leader has all the information and a quick decision is needed.Anything other than an authoritarian leader will result in poorer outcomes. Theories of Leadership People have been interested in leadership since they have started coming together in groups to accomplish goals. However, it wasnt until the early part of the twentieth century that researchers usually began to study it. These early leadership theories focused on the leader (trait theories) and how the leader interacted with his or her group members (behavioral theories) while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situationa l factors and skill level.While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of eight major types Great Man Theory Early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding. The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic.This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Trait theory In searching for measurable leadership traits, researchers have taken two approaches Comparing the traits of those who have emerged as leaders with the traits who have not and Comparing th e traits of effective leaders with those of ineffective leaders.Early research on leadership was based on the psychological focus of the day, which was of people having inherited characteristics or traits. Attention was thus put on discovering these traits, often by studying successful leaders, but with the underlying assumption that if other people could also be found with these traits, then they, too, could also become great leaders. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders?This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Behavioral theory When it became evident that effective leaders did not seem to have a particular set of distinguishing traits, researchers tried to isolate the behavior characteristics of effective leaders. In other words, rather than t ry to figure out who effective leaders are, researchers tried to determine what effective leaders do i. e. how they delegate tasks, how they communicate with and try to motivate their followers or employees and so on.Behaviors, unlike traits, can be learned, so it is followed that individuals trained in appropriate leadership behaviors would be able to lead more effectively. Participative theory A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team.These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of othe rs. The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during subordinate performance evaluations are more likely to be taken by the manager.Contingency theory Contingency theories are a class of behavioral theory that contends that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.This theory focuses on the following factors Task requirement. Peers expectations and behavior. Employees characteristics, expecta tions and behavior. Organizational culture and policies. Situational theory One of the major contingency approaches to leadership is Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchards situational leadership model which holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the readiness of employees. When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational ethods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple. Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior. The leaders perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation.The leaders perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mo od will also modify the leaders behavior. Transformational or Charismatic theory Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. One area of growing interest is the study of individuals who have an exceptional impact on their organizations. These individuals may be called charismatic or transformational leaders.First, many large companies including IBM, GM etc have embarked on organizational transformations programs of extensive changes that must be accomplished in short periods of time. Basss theory of transformational leadership Bass defined transformational leadership in terms of how the leader affects followers, who are intended to trust, admire and respect the transformational leader. He identified three ways in which leaders transform followers Increasing their awareness of task importance and value. Getting them to focus first on team or organizational goals, rather than their own interests.Activating their higher-order needs. Bass has recently noted that authentic transformational leadership is grounded in moral foundations that are based on four components Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Transactional or Management theory Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business when employees are successful, they are ewarded when they fail, they are reprimanded or punished. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whet her or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).

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