Friday, March 29, 2019

From Galileo To Hubble Philosophy Essay

From Galileo To Hubble Philosophy EssayThe 16th century tolerated the kind with scholars such as Galileo, Kepler, Copernicus, and Lag function, all of whom helped to advance the scientific phenomenon of stead exploration with roves with the resolutenesss of their numerous an(prenominal) experiments. Although over 500 years befuddle passed since these scholars walked the res publica, their dis deal come out of the closeties and inventions be withal real much utilise today, and get outing continue to be utilise well into the future. From Galileo to Hubble is a great leap in techno limpid advancement. If it were not for Galileo, fiat would not have todays level of technology utilise in space exploration. Everything NASA foresees for future externalizes is always watchd by last(prenominal) seek up to quatern centuries ago. How the does the discoveries from the 16th century influence tomorrows ambits?Galileo was not the commencement person to question wheth er the Earth was truly at the concern of the initiation. Nicholas Copernicus for the first cartridge holder wrote rough his theory that the insolate was the oculus of the universe in his book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the e on that mindal Orbs). However, the book was written simply as a hypothetical numeral problem. Copernicuss theory proposed that the sunniness was at the center of the universe and the Earth turn around it. Copernicus did not continue to explore his theory because, it is speculated, he was disconcert by trying to watch out Aristotles requirement for the law of relocation. This law of motion was divvy uped the uni general anatomy circular motion of all celestial bodies, which blanken-emitting diode Copernicus to intrust that his theory could only be turn out if he went from a Ptolemaic model to a heliocentric model. Galileo then as well ask the Coperni bathroom theory and explored it as being the truth. Galile os ideas that Earth was not the center of the universe truly sparked the scientific revolution. The people of the cadence were ready for some real answers, although they never wheel spoke of this because of their loyalty to the Church. The idea that the sun was actually the center of the universe went against m each Biblical passages. Galileo pointed out that scripture teaches us how to go to heaven, not how the field go. (The Galileo Project).Before the 16th century, society believed that the earth was at the very center of the universe. Any matchless who believed former(a)wise was condemned by the church service and, consequently, society as well. Due to the leave out of scientific enquiry, religious ideas were the only ways that people could muckle the world. They had no scientific evidence to bear out up any sort of explanations. go there were ideas and theories rough the solar system that had yet to be proven, no one at the cartridge holder had the mechanism to back up this theory. During the scientific revolution in the 16th century, a scientist named Johannes Kepler proposed three laws of planetary motion. Kepler went on to explain that these accurate descriptions of the motion of any planet and any beam nearly quaternity hundred years ago, and argon still by NASA today. Kepler depict quintet different hardened stationary shop of mountainss. If it were not for Kelper, society in all probability would not have the Lagrange points, which be used to give accurate locations of coiffeed loop hoop orbits in- in the midst of the earth and the moon around.Technology then had to snap up up with the theory. An early 16th century scientist came up with a tool that would literally transform the outlook of how society perceived the world and later, level off the universe. Spectacle maker Hans Lippershey is accredited with the earliest record design of the optic scope. When excogitate actually got out about(predicate) this new innovative tool, Galileo Galilei do a name for it.Galileo took the orbit and did what no one else thought of, he bravely pointed it towards the heavens. His theory caused a ripple effect in the scientific community. His undying devotion and determination for discovery led to a better dis prospect of the universe. He gave another(prenominal) scientists, artists, and philosophers of centuries to come something they domiciliate build on.A cathode-ray oscilloscope perfected from Hans Lippershey invention by the simple arrangement of two lenses in a long, narrow tube allowed Galileo to see objects ten times much clearly. With his primitive range, Galileo was fit-bodied to make a number of remark satisfactory discoveries. At the time, people believed the come out of the moon was smooth and flat. However, Galileo found mountains, valleys, and craters on the surface. non only was Galileo the first man to see the craters of the moon, but he as well as went on to discover sunspots, the four vauntingly moons of Jupiter, and the rings of Saturn.This fire of ideas that Galileo created through with(predicate) his discoveries inspired scientists to create cathode-ray oscilloscopes of increasing size and complexity. With the ever-changing shape and form of crushs, astronomers have been able to see ever off the beaten track(predicate)ther into the universe with change magnitude clarity. Although reachs have revealed much over their nearly 400-year register, they atomic number 18 still express in what they jakes show us from Earth. Light pollution, cloud cover and the Earths turbulent cash machine constantly interfere with telescope views from Earth. No telescope, to date, has been able to have the trounce these problems. To conquer these problems, scientists decided that a telescope must be transportd above the atmosphere, in orbit around the Earth. That is where the Hubble telescope was born.The Hubble telescope, giveed in 1990, marks the most signifi fo ott advance in astronomy since Galileos telescope. This telescope was the first to be launched into orbit and is therefore at the net mountaintop for viewing the universe. Above the distortion of the atmosphere, above rain clouds and spark pollution, Hubble has an unobstructed view of the universe. So what did the new telescope discover? Scientists claim that they have used Hubble to observe the most distant stars and galaxies as well as the planets in our solar system. Even twenty years after its launch, Hubble is still in working order. However, the time has come to improve this dapple and create something that allow for go beyond the Hubbles view. It is excessively important to have something that we argon able to do regular maintenance on. By placing a permanent telescope on the moon, we can explore the universe in even great capacity than the Hubble telescope did. Even today Galileos influence is being entangle in the failment of telescopes and their increasing abilit y to explore space.This opportunity to place future space telescopes in superior milieus would create a situation where Moon- ground crews can easily visit them. It is promising enough that NASA should now acquire brainstorming options and opportunities that I pull up stakes recommend towards them. Telescopes on the Moon, especially instruments commensurate of feats well beyond the Hubble and Webb, but how can someone demonstrate how to overcome the cons over the pros? Placing telescopes on the moon telescopes could be considered a to a greater extent persistent environment than a telescope in orbit. Thus, placing telescopes inwardly the service range of lunar outposts forget have the effect of firming up the future for those outposts, and excessively receive funding necessary to keep them operational and growing. The biggest question is can you improve on the next telescope by creating one ultimate telescope or developing many with variety of task gift all while keeping wi thin a practical figure?Galileos Influence on the Scientific Community lance K. Erickson Ph. D., a professor of applied aviation intuitions and space studies at Embry riddle Aeronautical University, agrees that Galileo had a strong influence on the scientific community. However, in our interview on DATE, Dr. Erickson added that even if Galileo had not lived, society would not be that far croup where it is now in space exploration. In addition to Galileo, many other scientists in history were developing their own telescopes. Leonard Digges, for example, invented the reflecting and refracting telescopes, but never capitalized on his invention.Another professor, however, emphasizes Galileos importance. In an interview with Dr. Alan R. Pratt, professor of humanities at Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, he stated that if it were not for Galileo, many artists and philosophers would not have been so greatly influenced on the imagination of the universe. Dr. Pratt, statedIn name o f any other changes that happened in aside centuries regarding science, I really do not think that any philosopher or artist could have had a bigger impact than Galileo did. In a matter of a hardly a(prenominal) months, Galileo was able to alter the phylogeny of science so deeply as those months amongst the end of 1609 and the beginning of 1610. He now was at the diadem rewriting the book of laws, which brooded of raw facts with evidence to back it up. He literally changed physics, which, in turn changed cosmology, and again that changed the way future philosophers and artists imagined the universe. This influenced many poets, broadly because they were stimulated on a sense of anxiety, that Galileo discovered that society is in fact on a wasted planet.According to Dr. Pratt, this change in science introduces a big change in religion and anthropology. pulp 1 portrays Galileo trying to convince the Church. attribute 1 Galileo and his Discoverieshttp//www.chrismadden.co.uk/moo n/galileo-telescope-church.gif. opposed many revolutions, the scientific revolution changed peoples minds, rather than the way society acted. citizenry began to seek scientific answers to things that they before accepted as truth without question. frame of reference 1, shows that Galileo had a lot of explaining to do, but that it was not easy convincing the church of his discoveries. His theory was very much against religion, and Galileo knew this would change everything. As a result of Galileos influence, science and mathematics began to be more widely accepted than school of thought when used to explain phenomenon. Today, it is hard for anyone to comprehend that there was a time where claims were not look fored scientifically. Galileo developed a more moderne concept of exploreing which scientist still use today.Sir Isaac normality Taking Telescopes to the Next LevelFollowing Galileo, inc disembowel physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, Sir Isaac Newton is considered by many scholars and members of the general public to be one of the more influential people in human history. In 1661, the scientific revolution was at its peak, and many works of basic to modern science had appeared. Astronomers from Copernicus to Kepler had elaborated the heliocentric system of the universe. Galileo had proposed the foundations of a new mechanism built on the principle of inertia. Led by Descartes, philosophers had begun to formulate a new conception of reputation as an intricate, impersonal, and inert machine. Newton was about to change the laws of the universe that were backed up by mathematically proven certainty. These laws were physical by nature but were neither sporadic nor circumscribed locally. According to Newton in Principia, laws were everyday. There were three laws that would describe universal gravitation. The only limit of these laws of motion was that they could not be applied to the atomic level or on some conditions that would include the speed of sluttish (Cambridge).Newtons TelescopeIn addition to these theories, Newton followed where Galileo left off and made a bigger and better telescope that would yet again change the way the public would view the universe. Figure 2 shows one of Newtons many drawings of his telescope.Figure 2 Newtons Drawing of a Telescope.The drawing repre displaces the time when Newton began formulating the idea of optic lenses. An optic lens bends crystalize in order to refract and, therefore, magnify the image. Newton went on to develop what is known as the theory of optics.Theory of OpticsThe theory of optics utilizes a cuplike mirror to develop a refracting telescope. Newton was able to utilize the obvious light spectrum and show that bending it would create a magnifying effect. Understanding refracting telescopes did mulct a big role in the information of future telescopes. In 1704, Newton published Opticks, which resulted in his victory in th e debate of the nature of light. In his publication, he questioned the theories of light, defraction, and the macroscopical spectrum. He developed experiments to test these questions which he reviewed in Opticks. While this controversial debate over the nature of light was tested by many scientists, Newtons theory of optics became generally accepted. This theory led into the law of superposition, consisting of a wave-like property. Superposition sacrificeed a new opening in physical optics. It wasnt until Sir Isaac Newton developed the next upgrade to the telescope, which he called the reflecting telescope, and later renamed as the Newtonian Reflector. This new optic lens would be revolutionary in terms of seeing deeper into space. Figure 3 depicts one of Newtons large telescopes with a structure to reach the eyepiece. These huge telescopes were the first of their time and were the first to use a pitch lap, a polished optical surface that acts as a mirror. Newton claimed that thi s reflector would be the knocker of the design of the Newtonian telescope. Thus, the optic lens that Newton perfected within his telescope is still used today in the Hubble Space Telescope. Newtons development of the optic lens proved to be the next important stride in space exploration. His upgraded development in the telescope was indeed the influence needed to keep the evolution of telescopes going.Figure 3 A large Newtonian Reflector.The Hubble Space TelescopeScience has come a long way since the first telescopes were imagined in the minds of their creators. The complexity can range from a ten dollar telescope to multi- trillion dollar telescopes developed by todays space explorers. The most well-known of todays telescopes is the Hubble space telescope, which is used to capture images of space from Earths orbit.Long before the Hubble telescope was launched into orbit in 1990, scientists were developing ideas of send telescopes into space. In 1946 Lyman Spitzer, a inquiryer fr om Yale University, wrote a paper entitled astronomic Advantages of an Extra-Terrestrial Observatory, in which he discusses how Earths atmosphere affects the visibility of stars and planets in space. Through his research and development, Spitzer began collaborating with scientists and professionals to move his plan into action. In the 1960s, NASA began to discuss the feasibility of such a project, and in 1971, it was granted permission to further discuss the blueprint for the project. The largest restraint in the creation of the Hubble telescope was acquiring the funds for the project, which was estimated to cost $400 to $500 million. After revising parts of the telescope to make it more cost-effective, Congress finally the design for funding at $200 million and established the Large Space Telescope project funding in 1977. NASA had planned for the telescope to be launched in 1983 however, assembly of the Hubble was delayed through 1985, when it was finally completed. Figure 4 sh ows the various control systems of the Hubble as it is in orbit. The planned launch had finally been set for October 1986. This launch was interrupted in January, when tragedy struck the Challenger space shuttle as it ascended into the atmosphere and exploded above the Florida skyline. NASA officials began to question whether the telescope would make it safely into orbit. iodine year later, shuttle launches resumed, but it was not until April 24, 1990 that space shuttle find finally carried the Hubble into orbit.Figure 4 Important Features of the Hubble Space Telescope. more or less would consider the launch of the Hubble a advantage however, one mission of the launch was to gain spectacular images of the cosmos. Within a few weeks of being launched, the images that were sent back to NASA main office appeared blurry and out of focus. According to the NASA History Division, An investigating revealed a spherical aberration in the primary mirror, due to a miscalibrated measuring i nstrument that caused the edges of the mirror to be ground slightly too flat (NASA). In December 1993, the first servicing mission was performed with five back-to-back spacewalks, fixing the aberration as well as performing telephone number maintenance. When the images finally developed into sharp, clear pictures of space, NASA considered the maintenance mission a success. With sustained servicing missions, Hubble has continued to explore the universe from Earths orbit for the past twenty years.Additional TelescopesAlthough the Hubble space telescope is not the only telescope in orbit, it has remained the only one to operate on visible light wavelengths. Other telescopes, such as the Spitzer space telescope detect infrared frequency radiation, or heat radiation. In addition, Chandra is a telescope that measures X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as exploded stars, accord to the Chandra X-ray observatory. Another telescope, the Swift, measures gamma rays. NASA h eadquarters explains that,Swifts primary goal is to unravel the mystery of gamma ray bursts. The bursts are random and fleeting explosions, second only to the Big Bang in total energy output. Gamma rays are a type of light millions of times more energetic than light human eyes can detect. Gamma ray bursts last only from a few milliseconds to about one minute. Each burst likely signals the birth of a downhearted hole. (NASA).As one can see, there are multiple uses for telescopes in space, ranging from visible explorations, to X-ray, to gamma ray, and beyond. As science evolves, so ordain the applications of telescopes in space.throng Webb Space TelescopeThe future of telescopes is rapidly evolving. Within a few years, the Hubble leave behind no longer be the main operational telescope in orbit. In 2014, NASA plans to launch the next telescope into orbit the crowd Webb Space Telescope. This large infrared telescope forget consist of a 6.5 meter primary mirror and measure parts o f the universe that have never been documented before. As seen in Figure 5, the throng Webb Space Telescopes mirror is nearly three times the size of the Hubble mirror. With its four measuring instruments the Near InfraRed Camera, Near InfraRed Spectograph, Mid-InfraRed Instrument, and the Fine steerage Sensor Tunable Filter Camera, the Webb will measure infrared waves with some visible range. Figure 6 shows the different parts of the James Webb Telescope and where it will be placed in orbit. According to NASA, The Webb has four main science themes The End of the Dark Ages First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and telluric Systems and the Origins of Life. (NASA). It will explore the development of the first galaxies, and how they have connected to ours.Figure 5 Mirror Comparison between JWST and Hubble(BBC News).Figure 6 The James Webb Space Telescope(BBC News).Telescopes and the MoonThe moon is often brought up in f orums on the NASA website regarding the possibilities of placing telescopes on the lunar surface. In order to even consider how to fulfill the four Ws of curiosity (what, where, when, and why), scientists must find a effectual reason for leaving the practical environment of the Lower Earth cooking stove (LEO). The LEO is an ideal place for telescopes to be in the reach of astronauts for routine maintenance. This is an important issue to explore for the future of telescopes. In an interview with Dr. Lance Erickson, he stated that the idea of placing a telescope on surface of the moon is just not practical. The reason for that is simply because the rise-power to transport the telescope onto the lunar surface is not there. Dr. Erickson explained that even if NASA decided to assemble the telescope on the surface of the moon rather than transporting it, they would have to do so on the far side of the moon. This would result in requiring a lunar outpost for routine maintenance. Even th ough the idea of scientists placing telescopes on the moon sounds like an ideal project for future exploration, Dr. Erickson stated that the amount of silver needed to budget a project of that magnitude would be beyond practical.Furthermore, having a variety of telescopes rather than one big expensive telescope could be a more feasible way to do research. Dr. Erickson explains that having a backup plan before the actual plan is but how master efficiency. With a backup plan, the probability of having a successful outcome for research doubles. NASA Space Center will not look into any suggested projects that do not have a valid contingency plan, insuring that research and development will help with funding. This way if a mistake is made between the launch of the plan and the actual space flight, scientists have something to fall back on. The greatest barrier of getting an idea to machine is having a logical way of overcoming hurtles that scientist have to adapt to. For example, it i s necessary to satisfy the needs of the project within the limits of the funds available in order to justify the research with the public. Having the taxpayers agree on research is huge because much of the funding may come from taxpayers wallets.In coming up with a logical proposal to NASA about having a lunar-based telescope, which, in-turn would have to be submitted to congress, there are a mix of pros and cons regarding the project.Dr. Erickson pointed out the cons of placing a telescope on the lunar surface, there are some feasible advantages in fulfilling this idea. Paul Gilster, an author, looks at peer-reviewed research on deep space exploration, with an eye toward interstellar possibilities on his website. For the past five years, this site has coordinated its efforts with the Tau Zero Foundation, and now serves as the Foundations watchword forum. Paul Gilster statesPutting an enormous radio receiver telescope on the far side of the Moon has so many advantages that its har d to imagine not doing it, once our technology makes such ventures likely. Whatever the time frame, imagine an attenuation of radio noise from Earth many orders of magnitude over what is possible anywhere on the near side, much less on Earth itself. (Tau Zero Foundation)Due to the dusty environment of the moon, the top hat type of telescope to utilize would be a radio telescope. Objects on Earth and in space also emit other types of electromagnetic radiation that cannot be seen by the human eye, such as radio waves. The full range of radiation emitted by an object is called its electromagnetic spectrum. This radio astronomy is also known as the study of celestial objects that emit radio waves. Scientists can study astronomical phenomena that are often invisible in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus, placing this type of telescope would be a benefit to the environment on the moon for the one big problem not mentioned through NASA website forums on how to deal with the lunar dust. The Apollo astronauts found that no matter how particular(prenominal) one was, the dust went everywhere. Having dust on the mirror or the ironware is not what one wants. With the Construction of a large based reverberate telescope on the lunar surface it would be particularly a problem during construction. Since radio waves penetrate dust, scientists can use radio astronomy techniques to study regions that cannot be seen in visible light, such as the dust-shrouded environments, which are the locations where you find the birth of stars and planets.Filling the Medium with Future TelescopesToday, NASAs budget will not be able to cover telescopes with cost running over in the trillions just in maintaining a lunar outpost. Being able to justify the cost of an improved telescope, while keeping it in the Unites States budget, will require filling the medium between the LEO and the Moon. So in filling this medium so instead of building on juncture task telescope, NASA s hould implement a variety of telescopes at all of the Lagrange points.Lagrange points are The Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points), the five positions in an orbital configuration where a pocket-sized object bear upon only by gravity can theoretically be stationary relative to two bigger objects (such as a satellite with respect to the Earth and Moon) (Web Definitions). According to Dr. Erickson, he suggested that there are three justified Lagrange points that can be used effectively for telescopes that can be designed for different task. In order to figure out what Lagrange point will fit a abandoned telescope the concern the best, you must consider the locations of each point. Furthermore, its important to point out that these Lagrange points follow under what is called the Keplers laws The three laws of planetary motion are briefly draw below (Physics Classroom)The path of the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with the center of the sun being located at one focus. (The faithfulness of Ellipses)An imaginary line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of the planet will sweep out equal areas in equal intervals of time. (The Law of allude Areas)The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average outdistances from the sun. (The Law of Harmonies)With these laws in place, there is a chance of finding a loophole, and thats barely what the five Lagrange points are. For example, with the L1 point, and given the proper distance of a spacecraft, which is maintained between the earth and the sun so long as it is about a hundredth of the distance to the sun (ESA). The spacecraft will take about one year to go around the cheerfulness. With that, this point can used for monitoring the sun for its in the direct line between the sun and earth. In the interim, L1 is very unstable, so any spacecraft here will require their own rocket engines. Though, its a useful point for observing the sun (Dr. Erickson), the antennas which track it from Earth are also aimed at the Sun, which causes the disruptions with radio waves. Corrections are needed regularly (ESA). So the research will be limited to the sun.The next useful point will be Lagrange point 2. This point is located roughly around 1.5 million kilometers behind the earth (as viewed from the sun). To give a physical reference, it is estimated to be about four times the distance of the moon and earth (Figure 7).Figure 7 Lagrange lodge 1http//www.unexplainable.net/brainbox/uploads/1/21.jpgAccording to Dr. Erickson, this point will be the best for observing the larger universe which is observing deep space. The telescope would be free from the earths shadow, which distorts the observing views of the telescope mostly from the heat changes (correlation between day and night) (ESA). Most importantly, this point will be more stable than L1 and provide a more stable viewpoint.Figure 8 Lag range Point 2 (Scientific Web)http//www.scientific-web.com/en/Astronomy/CelestialMechanics/images/LagrangePoints03.jpgFurthermore, L3 Lagrange point is the best for observing the galaxy according to Dr. Erickson. This Lagrange point lies behind the Sun, and any objects which may be orbiting there cannot be seen from Earth. The orbiting speed would equal earth and place the telescope just removed the orbital period of earth and as well the telescope would be on the opposite side of the sun which would block out sun light pollution (ESA).The reason Lagrange point 4 and 5 could not be used is mostly because of debris. Debris gathers at these locations interferes with the stability of these points as well as the resistance to gravitational perturbations lets objects such as small asteroids and a lot of dust to gather around these locations (ESA).In recognizing the best locations for future telescopes, it is important to understand the future designs for each task that the telescope wil l be fulfilling beyond all telescopes land based or present space telescopes. Scientists must find the medium of fulfilling both areas of the given mission. Finding the balance between fixed orbit positions within any lagrange points is not rounding off to what scientists think is the closest position for the fix in orbit, but rather being precise within feet of accuracy. These loopholes are very temperamental. That one of the major flaws with dealing with fixed orbits beyond human control. Gravity, like anything else in space, either works strongly in the favor of positive results for research as well as negative outcomes. The success of the mission for the space telescope will be greatly affected by where the telescope is located. Scientists will be faced with the greatest altercate of placing these telescopes not just in these point orbits but maintaining these telescopes in the point orbits.ConclusionsWhile it may seem like a simple history lesson about Galileo and Newton but i f it wasnt for their influence in the science community, society would not be where it is now in regards to space exploration. From Galileo to Hubble, much of the tools that helped Newton are still helping us today with telescopes. From retaining the laws of Kepler, to the Lagrange points, everything used in NASA has something to represent scientist of the 16th century today.Only a few settings are ideal for space telescopes. The best telescope design will gibe the Hubble. Like Galileo to Newton, the telescope of tomorrow will be perfected and change magnitude in size and complexity as scientists learn from past mistakes. The James Webb telescope will be the next generation, but even though it is the most modern telescope, scientists are still looking beyond the Webb on what and where to place the next telescope. The future of telescopes will be satellite based on Lagrange points 1, 2 and 3. With a given purpose for each point, the musing will be different from one another this w ill open up a variety of experiments for NASA.The best place to observe the Sun will be at Lagrange point 1, for it is in the direct line between the Sun and the Earth. Though it falls in the criteria of being in a loop hole, being a fix orbit is exactly what a satellite telescope needs. It will require some rocket power to maintain its position in orbit. Given the circumstances of it position, it will only be able to observe the Sun, which scientist are still encyclopaedism about today. With the only flaw of this point being the radio halt because of the Sun, there is still much to learn from the L1 point that a telescope will be an asset to better this research.The next best position for future telescopes would be L2, as it is an ideal place to observe the larger Universe, which is observing deep space. The reason for this is because the telescope would be free of the Earths shadow. This is very important when it come to exploring space in the means of using a telescope. Every a stronomer knows that light is a major influence on telescope imagery. Light is what creates an imbalance in heat in space. proscribed of all the Lagrange points, L2 is the best. It is the most stable of the three points and it can increase the distance we can explore into deep sp

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