Tuesday, February 19, 2019


Because they contain N functions, the dyes were screened in vitro for antibacterial activity of over 0,000 tested dyes none showed any antibiotic activity However, In vivo studies with mice, that had been infected with a bacterial culture, showed that several dyes counteracted positive bacterial Intections. HDR. F. 2013 Prontosll Gerhard Domagk (Nobel Prize, 1939) was a research scientist at l. c. Farbenlndustrle,a German manufacturer of dyes and variationer(a) chemicals. He carried out studies that showed Prontosil to be an effective antibacterial agent.When Domagks daughter genuine a streptococcal Infection (having cut her finger), and was in danger of having an offshoot amputated (or worse), she was the starting time patient to receive rontosil and be cured by it (1935). Prontosil receive wider tame when it was used to save the lite ot Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. , son of the US president. HDR-F-2013 infected with a bacterial culture. Several dyes were found to counteract Gra m-positive bacterial infections. NH2 o s Prontosil Later it was discovered that, in sustainment organisms, Prontosil is converted to sulfanilamide, and that sulfanilamide was the actual active sharpen.Sulfanilamide inhibits the synthesis of folic acid, which is an essential chemical compound for bacterial growth. Penicillin bacterial infections in 1941. By 1943, penicillin was being originated for the military and was first used for war casualties in Sicily and Tunsia. CH3 Penicillins act by modifying an enzyme involved in the synthesis ofa a bacteriums cell wall. the synthesis of bacteriums cell wall. Actively developing bacteria die because they beare Actively growing bacteria die because they unavailing to produce a a functional cell wall. unable to produce functional cell wall.Penicillins have no effect on mammalian cells because they are not enclosed by cell walls. The first penicillin was disjointed in in 1938 and The first penicillin was isolated 1938 and ound to cure bacterial infections in in mice. was found to cure bacterial infections mice. It It was used successfully in nine cases ofof world used successfully in nine cases human Hormones Hormones are chemical messengers organic compounds synthesized in glands and delivered by the bloodstream to besidest joint tissues in order to stimulate or inhibit some biochemical process. Many hormones are steroids.Remember All steroids contain a tetracyclic ring system. The about abundant member of the steroid family in anlmals (ana numans) Is cnolestero of all other steroids. Steroids c t Is tne precursor Steroids are organic compounds that contain four cycloalkane rings, three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring they are Joined (fused) in a specific way. The steroid core has 20 C atoms, 17 form the four rings, plus three methyl groups. sack to HORMONES Sex The sexual activity hormones are divided into three groups (1) the male sex hormones, or androgens (2) the young-bearing(prenominal ) sex hormones, or estrogens (3) the pregnancy hormones, or progestogens.All sex hormones are steroids. ster010s perTorm many an(prenominal) Tunctlons n Function Regulation of secondhand sexual characteristics Reproduction and master of the reproductive rhythm method Regulation of metabolism Examples oestradiol (an estrogen) testosterone (an androgen) Progesterone and the gestagens Digestion of modify Cell membrane component Cholic acid bile salts Cholesterol hydrocortisone cortisone derivatives This is the basic carbon skeleton for all steroids. 10. 7 Testosterone, the star male sex hormone, is responsible for male secondary sex characteristics.Synthetic testosterone analogs (anabolic steroids) are used in medicine to promote muscle and tissue growth, e. g. , patients with muscular atrophy. Anabolic steroids are used illegally, most commonly by carcass builders and athletes. The health risks are numerous, including liver ordurecer, coronary neart Olsease, ana s er Estradi ol is the top dog female sex hormone. It is responsible for the development of the female secondary sex characteristics and participates in the control of the menstrual cycle.Progesterone is an example of a progestin it prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized egg. Synthetic analogs of progesterone and estradiol are the active agents in the birth control pill, allowing for control of the menstrual cycle and ovulation. An estimated 50 to 60 million women worldwide use the pill as the primary form of ontraception. Drug Use RU-486, The Abortion Pill RI-J-486 acts as an antagonist a dose that fits into a receptor site, but does not have the customary effect as does another dose in this case the other drug is progesterone.Cortisone Cortisone, used extensively in the handling of rheumatoid inflammations, is one of the adrenocortical hormones produced in the outer part of the adrenal gland. These hormones participate in regulating the electrolyte and water balance in t he body, as well as in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Ethics of Methotrexate is a prescription drug used in the reatment of breast cancer. It can be used to block the action of folic acid, which is required for normal cell Olvlslon ana growtn 0T an emoryo.LIKe RI-J-486, it can be used to induce abortion in the weeks of pregnancy. Once a drug is approved by the FDA, a physician can enjoin it for purposes not originally intended by the drug manufacturer. Medicines Prescription, Generic, and the trailblazer drug, but cannot Prescription, is chemically homogeneous to Over-the-counter be A generic drug Generic, and Over-the-counter marketed until the patent protection on the pioneer drug has meld out after 20 ears.A generic drug is chemically equivalent to the pioneer drug, but cannot be A generic drug is chemically equivalent to the pioneer drug, but cannot be marketed until the patent protection on the pioneer drug has run The lower priced drug protection on the pioneer its g eneric name,out after 20 marketed until the patent commonly marketed under(a) drug has run out in this20 after case alprazolam sooner of Xanax. The lower priced drug commonly marketed under its generic name, in this The lower priced druginstead of Xanax. case alprazolam commonly marketed under its generic name, in thisPrescription, Generic, and Over-the-counter A generic drug is chemically equivalent to the pioneer drug, but cannot be marketed until the patent protection on the pioneer drug has run out after 20 days. 10. 10 The lower priced drug commonly marketed under its generic name, in this case alprazolam instead of Xanax. 10. 1 Heroal Remeales 10. 11 Ephedra Ephedra used safely for thousands of years as herbal remedy known as Ma Huang. In 2003, several deaths related to the ingredients led the FDA (in 2004) to ban ephedra products. At this time, in that respect are ongoing discussions to make the product available again.The herb contains the amphetamine-like alkaloids ep hedrine and the less(prenominal) active pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrene is used as a decongestant Ephedrine is a bronchodilator (opens the airways), and a stimulus Drugs of Abuse Ephreda was responsible for the deaths of over 80 people. An ephreda manufacturer challenged the FDA ban in court, claiming that the FDA had failed to prove that ephreda was not safe at low doses. In 2006, the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit upheld the FDAs ban on ephreda. Heroin Morphin diacetylmorphin, alkaloid in opium chemically modified high the mistreated natural drugTetrahydrocannabinol Marijuana A9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the principal psychoactive component of the cannabis plant (marijuana), the most commonly abused illicit drug in the US effects include euphory and anxiety. Medical uses are being discussed legal in some states the federal Government is opposed. One way to look at drugs is to classify them by their medical usefulness and their potential of abuse. Drugs of abuse can w ithal be classified by their tendency to lead to strong-arm dependence (addiction) vs. the physical harm they inflict on the user. Many addictive drugs are also highly detrimental to uman health.OxyconBn OxyContin contains oxycodone Oxycodone has been used safely for many years. But this grammatical construction includes a time-released mechanism for long-lasting treatment of chronic pain. Drug abusers speedily determined how to get around the time-release and were able to rapidly ingest greathearted amounts of oxycodone. The effects were said to be similar to heroin. Over-prescribed in the Appalachian areas in late 1990s and early 2000s. Many became addicted. An Amino Acid serotonin Tryptophan is converted to serotonin, an antidepressant, which is converted to melotonin, inducing drowsiness

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