Thursday, December 13, 2018
'Chapter Outline Chapter 2\r'
'Chapter blueprint Chapter 2 I. increaseal theories and the issues they raise A. The Importance of Theories 1. Guides the assembly of new information a. what is nigh important to take in b. what spate be hypothesized or predicted c. how it should be study B. Qualities of a Good guess 1. Internally undifferentiatedÃ¢â¬ its different parts are not antonymous 2. FalsifiableÃ¢â¬ component hardlytockses testable hypotheses 3. Supported by dataÃ¢â¬ describes, predicts, and explains military personnel schooling C. Four Major Theories ( psychoanalytic, fall uponing, cognitive evolutional, contextual/systems) D. Nature/Nurture 1. NatureÃ¢â¬ genetic/biological predisposition . NurtureÃ¢â¬ fury on go steady/ milieual imp prompt E Goodness/ harshness of Human Nature 1. HobbesÃ¢â¬ children are selfish and naughty and society must teach them to behave in a civilized way 2. RousseauÃ¢â¬ children are innately good and society must not inject with innate goodness 3. LockeÃ ¢â¬ child born uncomplete good nor bad, but like a tabula rasa or Ã¢â¬Å"blank slateÃ¢â¬Â F. operation and Passivity 1. ActivityÃ¢â¬ carry all over oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cultivation 2. PassiveÃ¢â¬ product of world powers beyond oneÃ¢â¬â¢s control (environmental or biological) G. Continuity/Discontinuity 1. ContinuityÃ¢â¬ delaying reassign (small steps) 2.DiscontinuityÃ¢â¬ abrupt change 3. Qualitative or quantitative change a. qualitativeÃ¢â¬ changes in a degree b. quantitativeÃ¢â¬ change in variant c. increaseal full points part of discontinuity approach H. universality/Context-Specificity 1. UniversalityÃ¢â¬ developmental change common to everyone 2. Context- specificÃ¢â¬ developmental changes pull up stakes by individual/culture II. Freud: psychoanalytical surmisal A. Sigmund Freud: Viennese Physician and Founder of Psychoanalytic possibility 1. violence on motive and emotions of which we are unconscious mind(predicate) 2.. Theory less influential than in the erstwhile(prenominal) B. Instincts and Unconscious Motives 1.InstinctsÃ¢â¬ inborn biological forces that motivate style 2. Unconscious motivationÃ¢â¬ natural and inner force orders beyond our awareness/control 3. Emphasis on nature (biological instincts) C. Id, Ego, and Superego 1. Id a. all psychic energy contained present b. basic biological urges c. impulsive d. seeks immediate felicity 2. Ego a. rational side of personality b. faculty to postpone pleasure 3. Superego a. internalized moral standards b. perfection ruler (adhere to moral standards) 4. Id, ego and superego conflict common/ fateful 5. Problems arise when level of psychic energy unequally distributed D.Psychointimate Development 1. Importance of libidoÃ¢â¬ sex instinctÃ¢â¬â¢s energy shifts body locations 2. Five typifys of psychosexual development a. oral st senesce b. anal st maturate c. phallic st maturate d. latency period e. genital pose 3. Conflict of id and fond demands leads to egoÃ¢â¬â¢s se lf-abnegation mechanisms defense mechanismsÃ¢â¬ unconscious coping mechanisms of the ego i. infantile fixationÃ¢â¬ Development arrested at early stage ii. statistical regressionÃ¢â¬ Retreat to earlier stage 4. Phallic stageÃ¢â¬ Oedipus and Electra complexes (incestuous desire) resolve by identifying with same-sex parent and incorporating parentÃ¢â¬â¢s values into the super ego 5.Genital stageÃ¢â¬ see during puberty a. conflict and distance from parents b. greater capacitance to love and have children in overdue date c. puerile motherliness due to inability to manage sexual urges beca drill of childhood screws E. Strengths and fatiguednesses 1. Difficult to test and ambiguous 2. Weak support for specific aspects of the theory (e. g. , sexual conquest by parents) 3. Greater support for broad ideas a. unconscious motivation b. importance of early experience, especially parenting III. Erikson: Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory A. Neo-FreudiansÃ¢â¬ Important Disciples of Psychoanalytic Theory 1.Notable neo-Freudians: Jung, Horney, Sullivan, Anna Freud 2. Erikson is most important life span neo-Freudian theorist 3. EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s differences with Freud a. less emphasis on sexual and much on social influences b. less emphasis on id, more on rational ego c. more plus view of homo nature d. more emphasis on developmental changes in adulthood B. Psychosocial Development 1. Resolution of eight major psychosocial crises a. go for versus mistrustÃ¢â¬ key is general responsiveness of angel dust b. autonomy versus shameÃ¢â¬ terrible twos c. initiative versus misdeedÃ¢â¬ preschool sense of autonomy d. ndustry versus inferiorityÃ¢â¬ elementary age sense of mastery e. identity versus role muddinessÃ¢â¬ adolescence acquisition of identity f. intimacy versus isolationÃ¢â¬ girlish adult commitment g. generativity versus stagnationÃ¢â¬ middle age sense of having produced several(prenominal)thing meaningful h. integrity versus despairÃ¢â¬ el derly sense of life meaning and success 2. character strengths Ã¢â¬Å"ego virtuesÃ¢â¬Â developed during stages 3. exemplify development due to biological maturation and environmental demands 4. Teen pregnancy explained as due to weak ego or super ego (management of sexual urges rooted in early childhood) C.Strengths and Weaknesses 1. Its emphases on rational, adaptive nature and social influences easier to accept 2. Captures some central development issues 3. Influenced intellection about adolescence and beyond 4. Like Freud, vague and heavy to test 5. Provides description, but not adequate account of development IV. eruditeness theories A. Watson: neoclassical Conditioning 1. Emphasis on sortal change in reception to environmental stimuli 2. BehaviorismÃ¢â¬ belief that only sight demeanour should be studied 3. Rejected psychoanalytic theory and explained Freud using learning principles 4.Conducted classical learn research with colleague Rosalie Rayner Watson and Rayne r condition infant Ã¢â¬Å"AlbertÃ¢â¬Â to vexation rat a. loud noise was unconditioned (unlearned) stimulus b. scream (fear) was unconditioned (unlearned) response c. white rat became conditioned (learned) stimulus producing conditioned response of crying after it was paired with loud noise 5. Classical conditioning involved when children learn to Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬Â caring parents 6. Reject stage conceptualization of development 7. skill is learning B. Skinner: Operant Conditioning 1.In operant (instrumental) conditioning learning conception to become more or less probable reckoning on consequences 2. bread and butterÃ¢â¬ consequences that strengthen a response (increase probability of forthcoming response) 3. PositiveÃ¢â¬ something added a. positive financial backingÃ¢â¬ something sweet added in onslaught to strengthen carriage b. positive livelihood best when continuous 4. NegativeÃ¢â¬ something removed a. shun reinforcementÃ¢â¬ something unpleasant taken in a ttempt to strengthen bearing 5. PunishmentÃ¢â¬ consequences that suppress futurity response a. positive punishmentÃ¢â¬ something unpleasant added in attempt to weaken behavior b. egative punishmentÃ¢â¬ something pleasant taken in attempt to weaken behavior 6. ExtinctionÃ¢â¬ no consequence given and behavior becomes less frequent 7. Skinner emphasized positive reinforcement in child rearing 8. physiological punishment best used in specific circumstances likeÃ¢â¬Â¦ a. administered immediately following act b. administered consistently following offense c. not besides harsh d. accompanied by explanation e. administered by otherwise affectionate person f. combined with efforts to reinforcement acceptable behaviors 9. Too little emphasis on role of cognitive exploites C.Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory 1. HumansÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive abilities distinguish them from animalsÃ¢â¬ can bet about behavior and anticipate consequences 2. Observational learning (learning from models) most important mechanism for behavior change 3. Classic experiment using Ã¢â¬Å"BoboÃ¢â¬Â doll showed that children could learn from model 4. Vicarious reinforcementÃ¢â¬ learner changes behaviors found on consequences observed being given to a model 5. Human agencyÃ¢â¬ ways in which humans deliberately exercise control over environments and lives self-efficacyÃ¢â¬ sense of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to control self or environment 6.Reciprocal determinismÃ¢â¬ mutual influence of individuals and social environments determines behavior 7. Doubt the existence of stages 8. grab cognitive capacities as maturing over time 9. Learning experiences differentiate development of child of same age D. Strengths and Weaknesses of Learning Theory 1. Learning theories are on the nose and testable 2. Principles operate across the life span 3. serviceable applications 4. Doesnt show that learning actually causes observed developmental changes 5. everyplacesimplifies development by focusing on experie nce and downplaying biological influences V. Cognitive developmental theoryA. Jean Piaget Swiss Scholar Greatly Influences Study of Intellectual Development in Children 1. Emphasizes errors in signifying (wrong answers) 2. Argues that cognitive development is qualitative in nature B. Piagets Constructivism 1. ConstructivismÃ¢â¬ dynamic twist of knowledge based on experience 2. Stage progression due to interaction of biological maturation and environment C. Stages of Cognitive Development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, perfunctory operations) 1. Sensorimotor stage a. birth to age 2 b. deal with world directly through perceptions and actions . unavailing to use symbols 2. Preoperational stage a. ages 2 to 7 b. substance for symbolic thought c. lack alsols of logical thought d. cling to ideas they want to be true 3. concrete operations stage a. ages 7 to 11 b. use trial-and-error strategy c. perform mental operations in their heads d. difficulty with abstra ct and hypothetical concepts 4. testis operations stage a. ages 11 and later b. think abstractly and can formulate hypotheses c. can stand up Ã¢â¬Å"grand theoriesÃ¢â¬Â about others D. Strengths and Weaknesses 1. Pioneer with long unyielding feign 2. Many of PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s concepts accepted (e. g. children active in own development) 3. Influential in cultivation and child rearing practices 4. Too little emphasis on motivation and emotion 5. Questioning of stage model 6. Underestimated childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive skills VI. Contextual/Systems Theories A. Changes Over Life Span Arise from Ongoing minutes and Mutual Influences Between Organism and Changing innovation No single end-point to development B. Vygotsky: A sociocultural Perspective 1. Russian psychologist who took issue with Piaget 2. Sociocultural thoughtÃ¢â¬ development shaped by organism evolution in culture 3. Tools of a culture impact development . Cognitive development is social process 5. Children co-const ruct knowledge through social dialogues with others 6. P caution too little attention to biology C. Gottlieb: An Evolutionary/Epigenetic Systems discover 1. Some contextual/systems theories have arisen from work by evolutionary biologists a. influenced by DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s work b. genes aid in adapting to the environment 2. EthologyÃ¢â¬ study evolved behavior of species in natural environment a. birdsongs in the wild b. species-specific behavior of humans 3. Evolutionary/epigenetic systems perspective of Gottlieb a. evolution has invest us with genes . predisposition to develop in veritable direction genes do not dictate, make some consequents more probable c. GottleibÃ¢â¬â¢s emphases: i. activity of gene ii. activity of neuron iii. organismÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior iv. environmental influences d. interaction between genes and environmental factors e. instinctive behaviors may not be expressed if environmental conditions do not exist i. duckling vocalizations ii. baby rats desire wat er f. general development is combination of normal genes and normal early experience g. experience can influence genetic activity and change billet of development i. ice chewing and impact on genes ii. lactose tolerance higher in cultures with dairy farming tradition h. difficult to predict outcome (multifactor influence) i. view people in continual fall and change is inevitable D. Strengths and Weaknesses 1. Complex like human development 2. Cannot predict outcome (wide range of paths) VII. Theories in Perspective A. Stage Theorists: Freud, Erikson, Piaget 1. Development guided in universal direction 2. Influenced by biological/maturational forces B. Learning Theorists: Watson, Skinner, Bandura 1. Emphasis on influence of environment 2.Deliberate steps taken by parents to shape development C. Contextual and Systems Theorists: Vygotsky, Gottleib 1. Focus on dynamic relationship between person and environment 2. Focus on impact of both biology and environment 3. potence exists for qualitative and quantitative change 4. Developmental pathways depend on interplay of internal and external influences D. Changing human race Views 1. Our understanding of human development is ever ever-changing 2. Contextual/systems theories prevalent today 3. Less extreme, but more complex positions ÃÂ© Copyright 2006 Thomson. All rights reserved.\r\n'