Aldehyde oxide (AO), has for many years been recognized as a metabolizing enzyme contained at bottom the cytosolic compartment of many weaves and in many species. This enzyme belongs to molybdenum hydroxylase family along with xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), any known as xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). In their catalytic exclusivelyy resilient forms twain(prenominal) AO and XOR exist as a homodimer. Its shown that each monomer consists of one-third domains (Figure 1). All thought they are so similar to aminic acid sequence, molecular mass, primary and secondary structures, and common catch origin, XOR and AO have different substrate and inhibitor specificities. AO catalyzes the oxidation of aldehydes into carboxylic acid, and in addition, catalyzes the hydrozylation of some heterocycles. It can also catalyze the oxidation of both(prenominal) cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) intermediate products. AO plays a very important r ole in the metabolization of numerous drugs. However, XOP is mostly involved in the catabolism of purines, pyrimidines, hypoxanthine, and xanthine. contempt the fact that AO and XOR are similar in protein structure and prosthetic group composition, they do differ in substrate preference.
The brisk sites of AO has been found to have a superimposed structure to that of XO, waver distribution and levels of AO are markedly different from that of XOR. For example, in mammals AO is by far extremely found in liver and OXR is highly expressed in the sm totally intestine. Under normal physiologic conditions more than 8 0% of total XOR exists as XDH, it transfers ! its electrons to NAD+ resulting in NADH. On the other side, under pathological conditions XDH is assumed to be converted into XO which produces superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by transferring its electrons to molecular oxygen. Conversion of XDH to XO Cysteine is responsible for this phenomenon which is well conserved in all mammalian XDH. In AO these residues are replaced by tyrosine residues, so...If you want to contact a full essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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